Naturalistic Observation Lab

Naturalistic Observation Lab

Behavior observed:

For this task, I chose to observe a stranger. On this particular day, I sat at the furthest end of the café sipping my coffee. A woman, lets name her Jane sat right across my table. She walked in just as I settled down. She sat alone at her table, settling her bag on an empty seat before looking at the menu. She spend considerable amount of time analyzing the menu while fidgeting her hands and frowning her face. After about four minutes she looked up and waived to the water, who smiled, nodded pointed 2 fingers up and approached her table after a while. The waiter approached her, with a book and a pen, she smiled again, nodded listening to the woman and appeared to scribe down on her paper moving from the lady to the paper, the waiter pointed to some items on the menu, Jane gaze shifted from the menu to the waiter as she moved along the items on the list. Jane was frowning and fidgeting all along pointing to the items on her menu while the waiter waited and watched impatiently shrugging and even signing severally and even moving her head from the right to the left on a number of occasion. I believe out of frustration. Soon after, the waiter left, Jane followed her behind, spoke to her pointing to the menu, then came back to her table. She reached for her phone as the waiter brought her coffee and looked at her suggestively as though to ask if she was okay (Jane nodded) and proceeded with other activities by giving her a thumbs up. Jane sipped her coffee at the same time browsing through her phone while tapping on her table. I was able to capture all this within the ten minute time frame.

Operational definition of behavior:

The operational variables in this case involves hand gestures which include; waving; thumbing up, pointing to certain items, fidgeting, pen tapping the note pad and tapping on the table. Face motions involves frowns, signing, nodding in agreement or disapproval and smiles.


Quantitative – frequency of behavior

Brief summary of above data (in a sentence):

Jane exhibited a number of various behavior, a considerable amount of her time was spent on her phone, looking around and the menu items, and around the café as the waiter. She also frowned frequently and showed agitation similar to the waiter who shrugged severally. In parallel, the waiter smiled less and spent a considerable tome scribing on her note pad.


Qualitative – description of behavior

Both Jane and the waiter were involved in a number of non-verbal behavior. To begin with, Jane first looked around for an empty seat before she sat down at her table; 2) she was fidgeting and frowning as she looked at the menu items. 3) She waived to the waiter beckoning her to come to her aid; 4) pointed at the menu items as she questioned the waiter about the same; 5) she followed the waiter; 6) she tapped on her table as she took her coffee; 7) she was fixated on her phone. On the other hand, upon being waved at the waiter looked at Jane, 2) she then pointed out two fingers and went about her duties; 3) Later approached Jane tables; 4) scribbled on her note pad; 5) shifted her gaze from Jane to her note pad; 5) Shrugged and signed appearing frustrated on Jane’s undecidedness; 6) She left brought coffee; 7) suggestively looked at Jane; 8) Gave a thumbs up

Brief summary of above data (in a sentence):


Qualitative – description of behavior

Both Jane and the waiter were involved in a number of non-verbal behavior. To begin with, Jane first looked around for an empty seat before she sat down at her table; 2) she was fidgeting and frowning as she looked at the menu items. 3) She waived to the waiter beckoning her to come to her aid; 4) pointed at the menu items as she questioned the waiter about the same; 5) she followed the waiter; 6) she tapped on her table as she took her coffee; 7) she was fixated on her phone. On the other hand, upon being waved at the waiter looked at Jane, 2) she then pointed out two fingers and went about her duties; 3) Later approached Jane tables; 4) scribbled on her note pad; 5) shifted her gaze from Jane to her note pad; 5) Shrugged and signed appearing frustrated on Jane’s undecidedness; 6) She left brought coffee; 7) suggestively looked at Jane; 8) Gave a thumbs up

What have you learned about observation as a research method:

1. Why is an operational definition important when conducting descriptive research like naturalistic observation?

This method of data collection enables a researcher to collect first hand data in a natural setting with the data collected being more genuine as individuals tend to monitor how they behave when they know they are being watched. As such an individual’s emotions and the reactions can be collected free of manipulation. This method is also significantly cheaper and can be collected through a number of techniques such as recording, timing and videotaping. On the negative side, it is difficult to control some variables therefore the subject under observation may be affected by outside variables say emotions and variations in the outside environment such as noise. A subject may also display different behavior at the same time which may make collection of data for individual behavior difficult as one may miss out on one behavior as he records the other. This is to mean that the subsequent results may also be inaccurate. Furthermore, the observer can manipulate or collect the data on subjective level which means that even the findings may be interpreted on a subjective level which is to mean that this method is prone to subjective bias.

2. Why is an operational definition important when conducting descriptive research like naturalistic observation?

It is important to define operational variables in collecting data so as to reduce error and ensure consistencies in the variables that are being observed. Defining the operational variables is also key to understanding what is to be observed as people tend to have different views and opinions as to what is to be collected. .

3. Why is it difficult to make causation statements about naturalistic observation studies?

In light of the disadvantages discussed above, naturalistic observations may result in inaccurate findings because it is difficult to control some variables. For example, from the above observation, it appears that the above information involves an accurate account of what was happening. However, it is difficult to tell whether Jane ordinarily behaves the way she did today, or the waiter as to that matter or she was simply agitated on the given day which equally frustrated the waiter. Jane shows agitation such as fidgeting, frowning, and tapping of the table). This calls for repeated observations to arrive at concise analysis of behavior. Secondly, reactivity which refers to the object under observation noticing that someone is observing them may lead to change of behavior. Although I can tell that Jane did not notice that I was observing her, I cannot precisely negate this either.

Appendix Frequency Tables


Are Women their own worst enemy?

Research Proposal

Women in Leadership: Are Women their own worst enemy?

Background of the Study

Under a macroscopic lens, one would argue that issues to do with women inequality are a thing of the past, especially when we consider that America is a global leader in workforce participation. Indeed, Population Survey from the U.S. Census Bureau’s (2017) shows that the majority of women are educated relative to their male counterparts. However, the workforce participation of women has fallen and even stalled over the years. Studies have laid several reasons for the same; the bottom line argument is that gender gaps in the workforce are a significant issue of concern for nations that seek to maintain economic growth and sustain its population even after retirement (Stamarski et al., 2015). The Global Gender Gap Report (2013) that analyses gender inequalities from health and survival, economic opportunity and participation, political involvement and educational attainment provides perturbing results that show that America is not among the of the ranking countries.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau’s (2017), almost 50 percent of the county’s graduates are women, yet only a handful of them make it into corporate positions. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2017), only 24% of women are in the CEO positions, and just 2% of them hold chairing positions. Furthermore, most women working in America occupy lower skilled positions and are likely to be in in precarious employment or work part time when compared to their male counterparts. The implication is that women are more vulnerable to be poor and without superannuation on retirement. Closely related to this is the issue of unequal pay between the genders. The International Labor Organazation (2015), shows that the gender gap ranges from between 3 % to 51%. Existing disparities in pay is a great issue of concern in considering that a significant proportion of women are single parents. The same is aggravated on the industrial basis with women in STEM related careers earning almost 30 percent less than males. The same is replicated on political scenes, where women are not only under presented by also victims of negativism. This brings us to Hilary’s Clinton presidency bid. Conventional wisdom shows that women show solidarity towards the cause of other women yet the opposite was true in Hillary Clinton’s presidency.

In light of this, could it be that women are less likely to support other women or are women still under the power of their husbands even when it comes to personal choices (Association for Psychological Science, 2011)? An alarming if not an interesting phenomenon being presented is that women raising through the corporate position is aware and often compete against each other for the small piece of power that is granted to them (Meyers, 2013). Therefore, women eye other women as a direct threat and act accordingly to suppress their ability (Sills, 2007). Judith Sills’ article titled “Catfight in the Boardroom: Do women hold other women back?” Gives a fascinating overview of the perception of women of women in the workplace who think that the other woman is holding them back. Sills (2007), asserts that an “A woman‘s worst workplace enemy? Another woman. ” How accurate is this perception,there is no data that supports the same yet survey findings reveal that women blocking the ascension of other women is a common phenomenon.

Rationale, Interest in the Topic and Form of the Study

The purpose of this study is to bring to light the existing inequalities of women in the workplace. Most importantly, the study seeks to question the inchoate portrait of women that supports the notion that a woman is the worst enemy of a fellow woman.My interest in the topic stems from the pervasive stereotype that seeks to suggest that women regularly compete each rather than support each other. This is clear from negative comments that are hurled by women against other women in social media.Since there is no data to support my claims, this assignment will take the form of an analytical essay to comprehend the underlying issue under discussion.


You Will Be Narrating Your Own Childhood Memory Imitating The Style Ofnick Flynn.

You Will Be Narrating Your Own Childhood Memory Imitating The Style Ofnick Flynn. Next, You Must Retell Your Same Story In The Voice/Style Of Either Kaysen Or Macdonald. Imitation According To Nick Flynn
I’m standing at a veranda, and it is six in the evening expecting my mother to be home. I don’t think. My mind was far away, considering how my day will end. Two minutes later, my phone ringed. “Hello, Brian Powell, would you mind having some today?” Marie asked me. “I don’t mind” I replied. For the last two years in elementary school, I was influenced by Thomas Craig my great friends into substance abuse. Thomas used to sniff cocaine at a tender age, and being in his company several times, I started sniffing Cocaine when I was ten years of age. “How can I get it? Know? Later or…” I asked. “I can bring it over there. Provided you keep the promise” Marie answered back. Marie was my longtime girlfriend from Boca Raton in Florida. Although we were friends, Marie was the supplier of cocaine to my friends and I. “Mum not home, so hurry, I don’t want her to know it.” I explained.
After an hour of a wait without seeing my mother, I decided to lock myself in my study room waiting for my “activator.” I knew that if Marie would find my mother at home, it will be another different story. After twenty or so minutes, Marie arrived and gave me Cocaine. I have been under care with a single parent. I used to ask my mother whereabouts of my father, but all were in vain. She did not like opening up for us on the issue. After a severe intake of the substance, I snapped off without waiting long for my mum to arrive back home.
The following morning, I woke up as usual. Prepared and left for school. I used to study at Pine View Elementary School; a place not far from home. Upon arriving at the gate, I was called by Mr. Peterson, the school headteacher. “Why are you late?” he asked. I could not reply because it was not the first time I was late. Not knowing that Mr. Peterson has been watching my moves, he asked me to explain to name the person who was supplying with the cocaine. “Marie sir!” I replied. “When did this begin?” Mr. Peterson asked. “Two years ago Sir” I replied innocently. “We have arranged for your rehabilitation program, and we have to take you today.” He added. I had no otherwise but to join Banyan Boca rehabilitation center. At the center, I was assigned to a caregiver; Mr. Philip who was nice to me. “I was an addict; I lost my family because I used to walk down the street. So I forgot about my wife and my unborn child. I think by now he or she may be twelve years” he said.
One day, my mother decided to pay me a visit at the center. Upon seeing my caregiver, she was perplexed. I could not tell what the surprise was. “Philip?” mum called. “Hannah Baker?” Mr. Philip called back. After a long time of conversation between my mother and the caregiver, my mum came to me and told me that Mr. Philip is my father, whom he thought had died long ago. I was happy to see my father for the first time in life. Additionally, when Mr. Peterson came back to inquire more about Marie who had been supplying me with Cocaine, he realized she was Marie Peterson. Marie person was her daughter who left school and started engaging in drug trafficking.
Imitation according to Susanna Kaysen
My mind is wandering over the horizons feeling so lovely about my expectations. My mum was to be home by then. I live with my mother in Boca Raton, Florida; a single mother who is so tight and daring in life. I have never heard of anything about my dad mentioned, and I was too losing the concern about his whereabouts. The most incredible thing was how they met and later parted again. It was six in the evening when my phone rang hoping to be my mother calling me about supper. “Hello? Do you mind some? Things are so fresh here honey, come on let’s do it!” It was Marie Blunt my client, girlfriend and somewhat the most reliable friend by then. We both seemed to understand each other most of the time. I’m just a twelve years old student Pine view school, but already drowning and wandering in the world of drugs. The habit is scaring away most of my trusted people including my teacher Mr. Peterson Blunt, coincidently the father to my girlfriend in crime; Marie Blunt. What confusion! Within twenty minutes or so Marie was already at our home with the package. It would be a living hell if she would meet my daring and scary mum. Thank God that she delivered me my cocaine before my mum could be home. My life is stuck, I find myself dreaming of how beautiful it would be when I grow up becoming the best cartel in town selling and supplying the drugs everywhere. But this was an endless dream full of fake illusions that would never come to pass.
The following morning, I went to school later than anyone could apprehend. It was half-past nine o’clock in the morning; six o’clock to me. “Where you coming from and what are is the time?” he roared. It was Mr. Peterson Blunt, my Head teacher right beside me furiously concerned. The day of reckoning had come, and this time no one was ready to help me out because of the burning atmosphere around me.
Mr. Peterson was such a person that would never deflect from his set purpose. He had investigated and realized that I have been using drugs for the past six months and it was my time to face the law. If not the law then I don’t know what it was!” Who has been supplying you with drugs?.” He roared again. Marie sir!” I said shaking. Mary has been a lady that I knew when I was still ten, but could not fathom why she has never been open to tell me her story concerning her family. She happened to have been born in my hometown but never had an interest in spending her life there.
This day became the turning point when I turned either side of the leaf. Mr. Peterson had already organized with his team on how I would be taken to a rehabilitation center. Today am in my living room, twenty- eight years old appreciating the mighty work did by my head teacher, Mr. Peterson. I thought of how I met this man who was responsible for our unit at the Banyan Boca rehabilitation center. The man narrated how he lost his life because of drugs and was ashamed of even going back home because of shame. He landed at Banyan Boca due to the same situation as mine. The name he said was Philip Powell. What a coincidence! My surname too was Powell, the name I have ever wished knowing its origin. After, a period of four months when my mother came to check on his son, a more confusing coincidence came along when my mother met Mr. Philip who vanished into the streets and never went back home for her. The day of the lord had come! Mr. Philip was my father, something I never expected just like Mr. Peterson also later realized that Marie was his daughter who had been thought to have died long ago. Marie is now a mother to my two kids after the union of the two parted families. Thank god for the rehabilitation center!
Analysis of the original and the imitated essays
The two writers; Nick Flynn and Susana Kaysen in their pieces of work The bullshit of the city and Girl, Interrupted respectively, has used narrative and conversations. They both seem to be narrating the personal stories and experiences (Helsel 365-375). Flynn is depicted describing the story of poverty and homelessness not to forget drug addiction. Besides, he also narrates the root of his poetic skills. On the other hand, Susana is describing a personal account on how she became addicted to sex, and the effects of permissiveness in the society. Moreover, she also tells of how she became mentally ill as a result of her addiction. In his work, Flynn is quoted having a direct conversation with his father. These two styles have been useful in clarifying the point intended for the public. Also, the two have used a Fragmentary style in explaining how disorganized their lives were. For instance, the confused mind of a homeless drunkard Flynn has been shown through his fragmentation style.
According to the original essay, The Bulshit of the City, Flynn has employed a confusing, non-chronological order, and subjective perspectives to represent the actual confused life that he experienced (Flynn 2-12). Flynn lived a homeless life full of confusion, drunkenness, for instance, he kept on moving from job to job, and from street to street. When normality is interfered with by drugs, the result is confusion.Similarly, the life of Susana is also fragmented as indicated by her lifestyle. Therefore, the lives of the two authors are compatible with their styles.
According to my observations, the different styles employed by the two writers were not the same. Although Susana’s styles should be accredited, I have chosen Flynn’s. It is because the latter seems to narrate a real story based on a real experience. Besides, the styles he has employed conform to the context of the story. In contrast, Susana’s memoir seems to be exaggerated, and her story does not seem to be a real as Flynn’s. When imitating Flynn’s style, I felt motivated and enthusiastic towards his styles because he actively engaged the audience to his story. On the hand, it was so discouraging to use a boring style like Susana’s (Sussana 12).
As far as I am concerned, I believe that I successfully imitated the two styles. It is evident in both of my two mirrored stories that I employed all then styles and elements used in the development of the memoir (Mangold et al. 6-23). Moreover, according to my observations, it was so hectic to imitate Susana’s work, unlike Flynn’s work that was so direct to understand and emulate.
Furthermore, the writing styles imitated affected the content that I delivered. As in the case of Susana, my well-planned content deviated and created another different theme. As opposed to Flynn’s work that raised and added flesh on my content. Considerably, I would have presented better material generated with a high level of creativity without necessarily copying from any of the styles.
In precision, am positive about the use of various styles in these two pieces of work. Otherwise, I have learned some items from Flynn’s work of making a non- chronological order of things as a way of indicating confusion and desperation in life. Susanna’s work is also worth some credit even though being too much aligned with Flynn’s work. The comparison and contrast analysis is a good writing skill that is able at making differences in the various pieces of writings. It is worth for one to realize the importance of writing about oneself in a bid to relay information concerning the past personal experiences (McCarthy 222-223).
Works cited



Chronic Conditions: Discuss what is meant by a chronic condition
Chronic illnesses are rapidly becoming the major concern in the healthcare industry globally. Consequently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has partnered with various organizations in the private sector to adapt and promote improved care of patients with chronic illness throughout the globe (Van Lerberghe, 2008). This initiative extends to the community aspects of better medical care for chronic diseases and involves policies and structures at the patient and family level, community and healthcare institutions level, and the policy level. This paper will define chronic conditions, describe their nature, identify steps which have been taken to improve the medical care of patients, and highlight recommendations for future improvements.
Definition and Nature of Chronic Conditions
Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, (2002, p. 7) defines a chronic disease as one that lasts for a long time, specifically more than three months. These conditions do not just disappear and cannot be treated by medication or prevented by the use of vaccines. More than 85 percent of Americans over the age of 65 years have been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. These chronic conditions are primarily caused by bad lifestyle behaviors such as the use of tobacco, physical inactivity, poor diets, and in some cases the use or abuse of alcohol (Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, 2002). Chronic conditions are more prevalent with old age; all the major chronic diseases in most countries around the world (which includes cardiovascular complications such as stroke and heart attack, arthritis, cancer primarily colon and breast cancer, obesity, diabetes, and epilepsy) have all been found to plague the senior citizens.
Although the terms chronic illness and chronic disease are assumed to have a similar meaning in clinical literature, they have distinct meanings (Mira et al., 2016). According to Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, (2002, p. 24), chronic disease is the basis of classification of the medical illness; it includes asthma, diabetes, and depression while chronic illness is the individual encounter and experience of having the pain that usually accompanies the disease. However, the two are dependent on each other and continue to be throughout their lifespan. They are significantly affected by external factors such as financial status, education, social status, environment, and employment. In conclusion, Mira et al., (2016, p. 16) says that the disadvantaged in the society will have varied discrepancies in the outcomes of the chronic diseases as compared to the well-up; this is unless the latent determining factors of health and wellbeing of the community are addressed creating health awareness and empowering the community to adopt better lifestyle behaviors.
Obstacles to Ensuring Quality Care
Care of individuals suffering from chronic illnesses is a serious challenge facing the healthcare system globally. This scenario is complicated by the fact that majority of these patients are aged 65 years and above; a majority of this particular demographic group have decreased immunity levels thus making healthcare more complicated and increasing their mortality rate. According to Roberge et al. (2016, p. 9), chronic conditions are the main causes of an unhealthy society and high mortality rates in European countries. However, all is not lost because a methodical approach with sufficient assistance from medical specialists can provide quality medical care for patients with severe chronic conditions. According to Mira et al. (2016, p. 13), this approach has been demonstrated and successfully applied for the following conditions: Diabetes Type 2, chronic musculoskeletal conditions, and hypertension. This section of this literature review will address some barriers that hinder the success of chronic care models:

  • Constraints in Human and Financial Resources.
  • Complications and vulnerability in patients poses unique challenges.

The lack of adequate medical staff in healthcare institutions is a major hindrance in the care of chronic patients as they require lots of personalized healthcare. The management of chronic conditions is enormously resource-intensive and very laborious; this is especially true in high-level healthcare institutions where they mainly focus on treating chronic patients with other co-existing medical conditions (comorbidity) who are likely to have mental disorders and financial and social challenges (Mira et al., 2016). To advance medical care to large groups of patients, staff capacity is a crucial aspect. Healthcare providers have the drive and passion to enlarge and grow such programs, but they are quite aware of the limitations involved in the provision of personalized medical care. In regards to the financial input, the implementation and sustenance of a chronic conditions care program is mostly expensive and is way beyond the financial capability of majority healthcare providers without help from health-based NGOs and other organizations and government programs (Mira et al., 2016).
Two factors among patients complicate efforts towards chronic care: Co-existing conditions and Socio-economic limitations. Immigration status, homelessness, lack of finances, lingual barriers, and drug use or abuse are among some factors which makes it difficult for some patients to seek or access medical care or commit to treatment and follow up plans (Roberge et al., 2016). Consequently, this high rate of no-shows leads to laxity and lack of enthusiasm and commitment among the healthcare provides; additionally, if the population is not engaged in these programs, the ability to improve chronic care is limited. Co-morbidities complicates diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases; additionally, such patients require extra attention as they are more susceptible to medical complications and fatalities (Roberge et al., 2016).
Steps to Improve Chronic Care

  • Communication, teamwork, and collaboration among all players involved in the healthcare of chronic conditions is essential in the progress and outcome of the disease (Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, 2002). The patient should be centralized in the chronic care programs such as heart failure management programs whose care is person-centered. All players involved should also have access to the patient’s information. As a result, a comprehensive ICT and data exchange system is paramount, and the patient (or a family member) should grant permission for the access to this information. According to Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach (2002, p. 39), the ease of access to a patient’s health data is a crucial step toward quality care.
  • Healthcare providers have integrated technology in their systems to improve engagements with the patients; they have achieved this by installing highly engaging and individualized communication (Roberge et al., 2016).
  • Healthcare providers should be patient-specific in their goals and approaches. On such method is availing near-site and on-site clinical facilities as a strategy to manage medical costs (Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, 2002).
  • Federal initiatives towards better chronic care are also worth a mention: the launching of federal programs that reimburses healthcare providers who deliver quality healthcare to patients with more than two chronic conditions (Mira et al., 2016).
  • Medical staff should focus on short-term changes in the patients with the aim of trying to predict long-term outcomes and respond appropriately; this enables the driving of the personalized care approach efficiently and without unforeseen complications and setbacks (Mira et al., 2016).
  • Treatment trials involving co-existing co-morbidities are crucial in tackling the challenge highlighted in the previous section of this paper. As earlier mentioned, co-existing medical conditions in patients provides complications and difficulties in the treatment and management of chronic diseases (Roberge et al., 2016). Trials targeting this specific area can offer insights into better management approaches, and this can help in reducing mortality rates.

Recommendations for Future Improvements
This section highlights some suggestions for future improvements in chronic care:

  • Team-based care should be a major research topic in the future. Earlier in this text, it was seen that team-based approaches are more effective in chronic care. The best constitution of the chronic care team has however not been sufficiently tried and tested in the healthcare institutions. Studies should focus on the comparison of different compositions of teams to review the clinical outcomes and areas of improvement (Roberge et al., 2016).
  • The insurance system should be refined because it is a crucial factor in the general health of society. The population should be consequently be made aware of their options when enrolling in such insurance packages (Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, 2002).It is also important to reach out and create awareness among the marginalized and vulnerable communities.
  • Programs and approaches which are tailored to each patient’s needs need to be introduced and the existing ones improved (Bodenheimer, Wagner, & Grumbach, 2002). This recommendation is specifically beneficial to patients with unique challenges such as co-morbidity and problems in socio-economic situations.
  • Treatment models which are centered on the stratification of risks should be applied in chronic care as it allows medical care to be more systematic and targeted. Tests and trials on this concept should be an area of focus in the future (Roberge et al., 2016).
  • Care and treatment plans can greatly help patients manage chronic diseases. Care plans which are specific to the needs of patients should be developed and tested; this is because of the disproportionality of the rates and severity of chronic diseases in different demographic groups. Modern technological trends should be incorporated in the modes of such care plans; such trends include the use of smartphones, YouTube videos, and medical care apps (Mira et al., 2016).



Security Models and Their Attributes

Evaluate Existing Security Models and Their Attributes and Ultimately Recommend a Custom Security Plan to Your Assigned Organization
Over the last few decades society’s need for convenience has made it increasing dependent on technology (Johansson, 2018). This technology dependency; the use of both information and communication technologies to perform daily tasks has dramatically increased the use of the internet and/or cyberspace (“Shibboleth Authentication Request,” n.d.). Cyberspace is “the notional environment in which communication over networks occurs” (“Cyberspace dictionary definition | cyberspace defined,” n.d.). According to Johansson (2018), the use of cyberspace provides almost boundless access to information, interactive communication and vast other resources. While this use of cyberspace has irreversibly changed the world, it comes with its own set of problems; cybercrimes. Criminals launch attacks designed to exploit the speed, convenience and anonymity of the cyberspace (“Cybercrime / Cybercrime / Crime areas / Internet / Home – INTERPOL,” n.d.). Between February and March 2014, the online commerce giant eBay was the victim of a successful cyberattack that compromised the Personal Identifiable Information (PII) of over 145 million of it user (“Cyber Thieves Took Data On 145 Million eBay Customers By Hacking 3 Corporate Employees,” 2014). eBay’s security posture at the time of the breach showed the companies lack of understand of cybersecurity and its inability to incorporate an enterprise cybersecurity process to protect its vital resources and those of its customers.
Today’s headlines are filled with reports of well publicized attacks on major corporations like Sony, Target, JPMorgan, Home Depot, and countless other smaller companies. Today’s cyber-criminals launch advanced cyberattacks like Phishing, Denial of Service and Ransomware to gain unauthorized access to. With these new and growing forms of cybercrimes, coupled with societies increased dependency on technology and cyberspace, gave birth to cybersecurity and enterprise cybersecurity.
Cybersecurity; companies like eBay have to protect vital resources in cyberspace. Cybersecurity is the process of protecting information assets by addressing the threat to information processes, stored and transported by internetworked information systems (“Shibboleth Authentication Request,” n.d.) eBay’s success, mostly based of the company’s ability to taking full advantage of the evolution of information technology and computer networks that enabled the efficient flow of data between and across diverse networks; proved to be one of its greatest strength during the 2014-2015 date breach. Hackers, despite their best efforts, were unable to access the company’s data as it transited between networks. Software was use to encrypt the data in transit make it unrecognizable and useless to anyone unable to decrypt it. Encryption is the process of converting both textual and non-textual data into code to prevent unauthorized assess. Even though eBay was able to protect its data in transit, the company’s lacked an effective enterprise cybersecurity policy.
Enterprise cybersecurity; is the process of implementing procedures designed to protect vital resources from unauthorized access. Companies that process, store, and transmit sensitive data have to ensure the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA) of data. Confidentiality, limits access to information. Integrity, is the assurance that information is unchanged and trustworthy. Availability, ensures the information is accessible to authorized people (Eugen & Petrut, n.d.). eBay failed to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of its customer’s Personal Identifiable Information (PII).
.Information systems; software, hardware, people and polices are the key elements of companies like eBay’s success. Cybersecurity protects data, including non-textual as it has protection of data flow across networks which is essential for companies like eBay and other companies thatthe process of defending computers, servers and other vital resources from cyber-attacks.
Organization Description
EBay is a giant e-commerce company whose headquarters are in California, in the United States. The company was founded in 1995 during the dot com bubble. It is a digital platform where millions of buyers and sellers engage in trade every day. It is currently a billion dollar company with presence in more than 30 countries worldwide. EBay describes itself as the platform where the whole world shop and sells. In their mission statement, they aspire to be the world’s popular shopping place for unique and valuable selections.
Just like many multinational companies, eBay has also been a victim of cyber-attacks. Between February and March 2014, cyber attackers used the log in credentials of a few employees to gain access to the company’s corporate network (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). The company released a statement notifying all users to change their passwords and added that customers’ details such as log in details, email addresses, mobile numbers, mailing addresses, and dates of birth had been potentially accessed by the hackers.
Background Summary: Cybersecurity
Cyber-security is currently considered a major national security issue; this is primarily because in the current digital era, information is considered an important component of power, armed conflicts, and power. The significance of information in international relations and politics has increased due to the onset and adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). The internet has simplified the art of accessing, managing, utilizing, and manipulating information to gain an upper hand in power since the control of knowledge, data, and vital information is regarded as a tool to control valuable resources such as raw materials, and military force. As a result, cyber security and the protection of vital information is a national security issue.
Cybersecurity is not to be contradicted with computer security because they are very distinct entities. Computer security is the basic security of computer hardware and also involves the backing up of information in the computer to an external storage unit (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). Cyber security is more complicated and extensive as it entails all forms of attacks that can be carried out in the cyber world (online and offline cyber space). This wide field entails threats such as viruses and malware which steal information or crash computer systems or cyber fraud carried out by malicious individuals.
The major concepts of cybersecurity enables the assessment of protective measures and systems by analyzing threats and pointing out vulnerabilities in systems. The main concepts include: (i) Authentication: This is simply permission to gain access to a computer system which are mostly protected from unauthorized access using tactics such as passwords, biometrics, or electric tokens. Passwords are very vulnerable to attacks as they are easily guessed by guessing, use of deceptive techniques, or the use cracking tools (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). (ii) Confidentiality: The primary objective of cybersecurity is ensuring information doesn’t fall into the wrong hands; this calls for high confidentiality amongst individuals holding key access details. This concept has seen the digital world evolve resulting in the emergence of several levels of encryption which makes it harder for hackers to access a system (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). (iii) Information Integrity: ICT innovations has brought about technologies which detect when information is tampered with. Such integrity mechanisms sends out signals if vital data is compromised in any way.
The list computer vulnerabilities is long and always changing thus the need for vigilance in regards to cyber security. Every time an outsider connects to a network or a software (such as a website), the outsider can access the internal workings of the network if no restrictions are in place. Some of the most common vulnerabilities include lack of data encryption, OS command injection, lack of authorization protocols, and unregulated upload of files (Turk, 2005). Vulnerabilities can also be from within the network; breaches can occur from USB sticks, unsecured wireless access points, unchecked access by employees, and smart devices such as laptops, smartphones, printers and manufacturing robots.
The most common forms of cyber-attacks include:

  • Malware: Hackers can introduce malware into your computer system disguised as antivirus alerts or file attachments. Once the user clicks on the pop-ups, viruses or ransomware is introduced into the computer and the attackers can potentially control the system or access important information.
  • Phishing: Attackers sends emails to user which appear as if they are from someone trusted such as a known company. The emails seems legit but they contain malicious attachments (Turk, 2005).
  • SQL Injection Attack: SQL (structured query language) is a programming language which is used in the management of databases. An SQL injection attack exploits SQL vulnerabilities allowing the servers to execute malicious codes (Turk, 2005).

Penetration testing (also referred to as pen testing or ethical hacking) is the act of testing the vulnerabilities of computer systems, web applications, or a network to find loopholes that can be used by attackers. It can be performed manually by ethical hackers or can be performed using automated applications. The information collected regarding possible vulnerabilities and weaknesses, an organization’s security policies, and employees’ cyber security awareness is submitted to the IT and system department of the organization to enable them to strategically make necessary security changes (Turk, 2005). Organizations are advised to perform pen tests as often as possible to make sure that their systems are secure throughout the clock. Additionally, pen tests may serve to add new applications to a network, make modifications and upgrades, and review security policies.
Network Forensic Analysis Tools (NFAT) creates reports of potential problems in a system by checking all computers in a network for vulnerabilities and checking all possible entry points that a hacker can use. NFATs provides a complete picture of everything that is happening in a system or network; their purpose is to gather information and evidence in the network by capturing data packets (Julian, 2014). NFATs then analyses the data and administrators can easily track any unauthorized activities. The NFATs are quite effective as they decrease the time spent by administrators on gathering evidence and tracking illegal activities on their networks.
Enterprise Cybersecurity
The major enterprise cybersecurity concepts include:

  • Integrate cyber-space risks with the general risk management approaches: Managing and mitigating cyber risks should be part of the organization’s risk management framework (Julian, 2014).
  • Elevation of cyber security risk management to the executive level: Involving the top office in the management of cyber risks increases the awareness of the threat posed by cyber-attacks.
  • Evaluation of the organization’s specific cyber security risks: It is important for an organization to identify its most valuable assets and run risk assessments test so that to prioritize protective approaches and measures (Julian, 2014).
  • Provision of oversight and evaluation: The management should oversee and manage the management and mitigation of cyber security risks.

Principles that Underlie the Development of an Enterprise Cybersecurity Policy Framework and Implementation Plan:

  • Proportionate and Risk-based: Cybersecurity framework should be founded on a detailed understanding of the vulnerabilities, threats, and the potential aftermath of a cyber-attack. The frameworks should be specifically designed to handle such threats (Johansson, 2018).
  • Outcome-oriented: It is important that the framework regulations should achieve the projected results rather than being a means to an end.
  • Prioritizing: Different threats have different degrees of importance. The most imminent and dangerous threats should be handled first.
  • Realistic and Practical: Generating policies which aren’t executable because of various factors such as lack of resources doesn’t help in improving the cybersecurity of an organization (Johansson, 2018).

Big businesses and companies are a prime target of cyber-attacks because of their massive financial resources and the value of data that they hold. The most common cyber-attacks that such businesses experience are:

  • Point of Sale (POS) Intrusions: Hackers install malware in the POS devices designed to collect data from clients’ credit cards. This threat is potent for all large brick and mortar retailers (Julian, 2014).
  • Web Applications Attacks: Hackers look for weakness in the websites of organizations and exploit them to access personal information of users.
  • Insider Misuse: Individuals working inside a company might access sensitive data and use for personal interests (Julian, 2014).
  • Physical Theft: The hardware technologies that are installed in an organization to reduce cyber-attacks are prone to theft.

Analysis of Weaknesses
In the wake of the 2014 cyber-attack on eBay, a cyber-security vulnerability evaluation was conducted and, unsurprisingly, found major loopholes on their e-commerce platform which could facilitate a cyber-attack. It was noted that the flaws found in eBay’s platform gave malicious individuals an opening to go past the company’s validation checks enabling them to send malware to unsuspecting users (Turk, 2005). A manager at Check Point Software Technologies said that the eBay platform flaws gave attackers an easy way to attack users by sending them links of attractive products (which have embedded malware) to access and potentially steal their data. However, eBay’s management denied this assessment affirming and reassuring their customers that there information was secure. They, however, promised to evaluate and improve their cyber security infrastructure.
EBay, just like many organizations, are aware of the risk posed by cyber-attacks but are ignorant to the consequences and haven’t put up adequate cyber-security measures. These companies, eBay included, become aware of cyber-attacks after being notified by an outside party rather than their own security systems (Turk, 2005). Prior to the attack eBay operated on the notion that they can be attacked but weren’t convinced that they will actually be attacked.
Another weakness shown by eBay is that they weren’t willingly to publicly declare that they had been compromised. Such a move is aimed at protecting the company’s reputation and share price. However, it is unethical not to warn millions of users that their data, which can be used to steal from their bank accounts, is in the hands of malicious individuals.
EBay’s e-commerce platform is generally a soft target for hackers and, unfortunately, has very valuable users’ information. As an example, eBay stores shoppers’ personal information including bank account details which cyber-attackers consider valuable. With its customer base ranging in millions, the company is obviously a target for identity thieves.
At the time of the attack eBay was looking to simplify the customers shopping experience by reducing the number of authentication protocols involved. They wanted to incorporate electric tokens in their payment protocols so that the clients would just use their smartphones to pay without necessarily having to type the passwords. This was another serious mistake from the management (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). They overlooked the fact that hackers can use the email addresses of customers and request a change of their bank password, and thus gaining access to the customer’s banks and consequently locking out individuals from their own accounts.
EBay is not yet safe from cyber-attacks; they face a very tough future in regards to cyber-attacks. The increase and ease of availability of technical information related to hacking have made hackers more sophisticated in their tricks and attacks. New forms of attacks can only be detected once an attacker or an ethical hacker penetrates a system thus eBay should continually test and upgrade their platform to prevent future attacks (Finkle, Chatterjee, & Maan, 2014). The company should create cyber-security awareness among its management and employees and also adopt multi-level security measures to mitigate the risks of attacks. Additionally, strong encryption and authentication protocols will ensure that the customer’s information is kept to a minimum.


Homeland-Root Culture: Puerto Rico

About Homeland-Root Culture: Puerto Rico
Name, Size, and Location
Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States, but it is not a state. It is suited in the Caribbean Sea.Puerto Rico has located North America. San Juan is the largest city in Puerto Rico. It is the most populous city. In the territory of the U.S, San Juan is the oldest city. In 1521, the town was founded by Pone de Leon (Orellano-Colón et al. 2015). Puerto Rico is about the size of the Connecticut state.According to data from the American census, the unincorporated territory had a population of 3,667,084. It is approximately 1,600km (1,000 miles) southeast of Miami of Florida state. By law, Puerto Ricans are the United States citizens and are free to move between the mainland and the island. In the U.S Congress, Puerto Rico does not have a vote because it is not a state.
The Puerto Rico geography includes an archipelago suited between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, west of the Virgin Islands and east of the Dominican Republic. The significant Puerto Rico Island is the most eastern of the Greater Antilles, and it is the smallest (Rivera Ramos, 2001). The size of the area is approximately 9,104 km(area of 3,515 square miles). In the U.S, it is the third largest Island. It is the 82nd largest on earth. The mainland measures about 177.8 km (110.5 miles or 96 nautical miles.
Climate and geographical features
The tax incentives, traditional cuisine, natural scenery, tropical climate, and history of Puerto Rico make the island a destination for tourists throughout the universe. It is majorly mountainous with large areas in the coast in the south and north areas of the island. Sandy Beach, Domes Beach, Maria’s Beach and Jobos Beach are some of the famous beaches on the island’s north-west side. The Central Range (La Cordillera) is the main mountainous range (Orellano-Colón et al. 2015). Cerro de Punta which is the highest Puerto Rico elevation point (1,338 meters or 4,390 feet) is suited in this range. With mountains covering about 60% and except in the regional coasts, the area is very mountainous. Puerto Rico provides a fantastic variety of rivers, oceans, caves, beaches, deserts, and rain forests. It has three major physiographic areas namely the karst area, the mountainous interior, and the coastal lowlands.
In Puerto Rico, the climate is Tropical Marine. It has an average temperature of 26°C (80°F). In most of the year, it enjoys sunny and warm days. Year-round, the lightweight wear is suitable. There are moderate rainfalls and temperature, and winds blow from the East. The rains tend to evenly distributed in the whole year. But it doubles in during May to October (Zhen-Duan, Jacquez, & Sáez-Santiago, 2018). This coincides the season of the hurricane. The driest months are from January to April. The south coast gets a half the rain as the north coast. Annual precipitations in the south are 910mm and 1,550 mm in the north. The yearly rainfall in the mountainous regions is 508 cm while 101-381 cm in the coastal areas.
Primary cultural characteristics
The native people of Taino formerly occupied the island of Puerto Rico. Its official languages are English and Spanish, though the language that is predominant is Spanish.The culture of Puerto Rica is majorly a fusion of Spanish, Taino, and African influences. The fusion extends to almost each Puerto Rican life aspect such as the traditional festivals, vibrant music, colorful arts and crafts, and sumptuous cuisine (Rivera Ramos, 2001). Even though other cultures have also contributed to rich musical traditions of Puerto Rico, Music is undoubtedly not the exceptions. The Afro-Caribbean beats to original sculptures from European architecture during the tourists visit, they experience the integration in each sound, sight, and tastes. The most traditional dish of Puerto Rica people is asopoa that is not really a soup. It is a hearty gumbo prepared with either shellfish or chicken. Consumed when the budget of food runs low are pigeon peas (asopao de gandules). Most of the people of Puerto Rica are Roman Catholics. Nevertheless, the Commonwealth Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion to all faiths. In Santurce, there is a Jewish Reformed Congregation and there is also a Jewish Community Center in Miramar.
The Immigration periods
Puerto Ricans have both migrated and immigrated to the City of New York. In the mid of 19th C, the 1st Puerto Rican group immigrated to City of New York when Puerto Rico was a colony of Spain and its citizens the subjects of Spain (Orellano-Colón et al. 2015).In 1898, the following Puerto Ricans wave to move to the City of New York did so after the war between Spanish and Americans. Puerto Rican were no longer citizens and subjects of Spain, they were now citizens of Puerto Rican of possession of America and required passports to travel the United States mainland. The Puerto Rican people story is a special one in the United States immigration history. For more than a century, Puerto Rico has been a possession of the United States even though it has never been a state. Since 1917, the people have been citizens of the United States of America. However, they do not have a vote in the Congress. The Puerto Rico people as American citizens an move in all the fifty states in the U.S just like any other American can legally travel. This is viewed as internal migration but not immigration. Nevertheless, Puerto Ricans leave a homeland in moving to the mainland with is culture and identity (Zhen-Duan, Jacquez, & Sáez-Santiago, 2018). The transition can involve many of the similar emotional adjustments and cultural conflict which are faced by most immigrants.



Domino’s Pizza: Develop Marketing Mix Strategies to Ensure a Value Offering for the Target Market You Identified in the Previous Assignment.
Domino’s Pizza, Inc was founded in the year 1960 as a small company which has grown to be a giant in the industry. The headquarters of the corporation is located at the Domino’s Farms Office Park, found in the Ann Arbor, Michigan. The incorporation of the company was done in Delaware. The company boasted of being the largest pizza sales globally. The restaurants have several branches in $13, 811 locations worldwide. The products sold include pizza, pasta, chicken wings, dessert, and submarine sandwiches. Domino’s pizza has a revenue of 2.47 billion, and it has an operating income of $454.04 million. The company has a net income of $214.68 million with the assets totaling $716.30 million. This paper focuses on creating offerings based on the features, benefits, price, and cost of ownership as well as the type of consumer offering (Veil, Sellnow, & Petrun, 2012).
Marketing strategy implications
The marketing strategy put in place by Domino’s pizza is working for the company because it is increasing the number of stores and the market share at a very high rate compared to the competitors. The company was struggling to compete with Papa John’s and Pizza Hut. The executives at the company put in place some strategies that turned around the fortunes of the company in the market (Veil, Sellnow, & Petrun, 2012). It is a relatively inexpensive luxury, something that has made it easier for the company to flourish in emerging markets such as China and Brazil. Its growth has also been seen in Turkey, India, and Japan. The marketing department works together with the production department to meet the needs of the clients in the market. The sales have soared since the company comes up with a new pizza recipe in the year 2009. They capitalized on the marketing strategy that demands that they have a good core product. Most of the clients are attracted to the company as a result of its core product. The company has also innovated the pasta, sandwiches as well as the side dishes. The average ticket sale at Domino’s has been driven up by the “Specialty chicken” strips that are being ordered together with pizza. The improvement of the menu has also played a big role in ensuring that Domino’s succeeds over its rivals. The company also invests inefficient in staff to ensure that they improve the sales of the company. They employed the Marketing Guru Russel Weiner who came from Pepsi six years ago. Weiner came up with the self-deprecating marketing strategy that has met the need s and the demands of the clients hence improving the amount of profit that has been made by the company. Domino’s admitted that its pizza was not the best, so they came up with several measures to improve the profits of the company (Solis, 2018).
Tangible and intangible aspects
Some of the tangible aspects of the company include assets such as cash, vehicles, equipment, buildings, inventory as well as the investments. The intangible aspects, on the other hand, do not exist in physical form, and they include pre-paid expenses, goodwill, and the account receivables. The tangible and the intangible aspects work together to improve the profitability of the company in the marketplace. Many advantages can be attributed to the tangible and intangible aspects (Sheehan, 2014). The company uses both of them to the benefit of the organization and the increase in profitability.
Domino’s pizza provides specialty offerings to the people in the market. They are important in the success of the company in the marketplace as it seeks to advance the market share in the organization. The specialty offerings serve to improve the market share of the company in the market as they try their best to outdo their opponents. The marketing of the specialty goods helps a company to build a brand name and recognition of the clients and providing and the key differences of the products that are being offered in the market. Some people will go by the pizza only because it came from Domino’s pizza and they have confidence in the brand (Moynihan, 2003)
Marketing mix
Domino’s is famous for its quality and fresh pizza that has been prepared with the customer satisfaction in mind. The company has designed high-quality boxes that are meant to keep the contents warm and fresh.The company offers products for both vegetarians and non-vegetarians in the market. Domino’s has localized the flavors as a way of seizing the market and ensuring that they keep as many clients as possible to their side. The quality of the product, it’s packaging, and presentation to the clients has played an essential role in attracting the clients to the brand. Domino’s pizza comes in three different sizes which are large, medium and small (Bhat, Reddy, & Mandanna, 2018).
Domino’s targets the lower middle class as well as the middle-class income group. It has a motto of providing the best quality products with reasonable pricing. They also make sure that their prices are checked by having a uniform and consistent pricing policy. The base price is therefore reviewed, enabling the company to attract the clients. However, Domino’s rates are higher compared to KFC and McDonalds. Special discounts are provided regularly, something that makes the clients to be attracted to the company. The quality of the products is also high meaning that the people have value for their money (Bhat, Reddy, & Mandanna, 2018).
Domino’s delights in maintaining a direct channel with the clients. The clients order for the products directly, and the pizza is delivered at their doorstep. The company has also given the company an option of placing an order through the company’s official website. In the case where the pizza does not reach the client for thirty minutes, then the client does not have to pay for it. The company does not charge the clients for the delivery of pizza to the different destinations in the country. The free delivery plays an important role in lowering the prices and satisfying the clients (He, Zha, & Li, 2013).
The company has achieved a higher market share because it has managed to maintain a direct link with the client. The management of the company, therefore, gets the much-needed feedback from the clients. It has a good policy of door to door deliveries. The existing and prospective clients are aware of the fact that Domino’s will deliver the product within thirty minutes which is one of the most important promotional strategy used to attract the clients. Their sales depend on the marketing strategy and the ability of the delivery boys to provide the products to the clients on time. Domino’s observes the competitors closely as they work to improve their market share. They also address their strengths and weaknesses. One of the milestones that Domino’s pizza has achieved is the ability to deliver the product on time, something that the competitors are unable to do. Domino’s always comes up with the new strategies of promoting their products to the clients. The delivery is always free of charge, and there are circumstances where the company offers a 50% discount for the second pizza that has been bought. The company has also utilized the visual media as a communication tool that ensures that the clients get more information about the product (Sheehan, 2014).
Domino’s pizza has done its best to ensure that it is competitive in the market. There are many lessons that the other companies can learn from the brand to ensure that they provide the best services to the clients and they can increase their market share. Marketing strategies are an essential part of an organization which means that all the brands should be careful with the marketing strategy that they use.


Nokia: Losing Ground in India

This paper seeks to give reasons for Nokia’s failure in India in light of the case study by Kumar & Perepu (2014) titled “Nokia: Losing Ground in India. ” Nokia enjoyed an undisputed share of the global market as well as India’s market for nearly 14 years in part because of its efforts to produce customized phones that fit the Indian market. Kumar & Perepu (2014), asserts that the company had localized production in line with the Indian market creating both market entry and leader feature mobile phones that supported Indian ringtones, long battery life, multiple languages as well as compatibility with the Indian environment. In addition, government support and reforms in the telecommunication industry (which incorporates free incoming calls, inexpensive calling charges), as well as changing demographics, saw sales off phones increase to millions of units.However, in 2013, Samsung dethroned Nokia Corporation to have a market share of 31.5% against Nokia’s 27.2 %. Unfortunately, Nokia’s dramatic decrease in its market share was not only experienced in India but also across the globe.
To begin with, Kumar & Perepu (2014; 8), asserts that Nokia was complacent with its products failed to keep up with competitor’s trends. For instance, Nokia continued to launch cost-friendly available mobile phones while its competitors such as BlackBerry and Apple was busy producing the high-end phone.This is partly understandable in considering that India was Nokia’s second-largest market. Therefore, launching affordable phones seemed like the way forward to targeting lower-income groups. However, Nokia’s failure to segment its market would be its downfall.Notably, Nokia upgraded features of its phones to incorporate features such as FM radios, flashlights, colored screens, and speaking clocks. However, at this time, its competitors were busy unveiling dual SIM phones. From 2009 throughout 2010, dual SIMs accounted for nearly half of the cellphones in India, yet Nokia failed to capitalize on the growing trend to produce dual SIM carriers. Nokia decided to launch a double SIM carrier later on as the competitors shifted to other technologies.
Secondly, as the Android technology swept the market, Samsung and the likes of HTC came up with android enabled features that integrated multiple apps, yet Nokia chose to stay with its Symbian system. The android system becomes popular such that it held 80% of the total market share in the market. Newer and better versions of Android and Apple iOs were released as Nokia still stuck with its Symbian system. Nokia was dependent on its Symbian system until its partnership with Microsoft.Even after the partnership, it took Nokia a significantly long period (6 – 8 months) to launch its first Windows phone. However, the shift to windows came in too late as the likes of Apple and Samsung has already established its place in the market, leaving no room for Windows phone.
Apart from failing to change its platforms early enough, Nokia was alsounable to follow key market trends. To begin with, as the Android system had proliferated the market, competitors now geared their target to low income customers producing phones to target the market, yet Nokia chose to produce high-end phones priced as high as INR 29,000 while low range phones stood at just INR 7, 000 (Kumar & Perepu, 2014 pp. 10). Samsung did not only stop at producing low-end phones for customers with low incomes, but it also modified its handsets with slight modifications from its previous launch. Nokia windows phone was first launched in 2011 but lacked fundamental technology that could drive sales. In fact, Nokia Windows’s series was launched, but it did not resonate well with the customers in the level of attractiveness and apps that were in Samsung’s, Apples, and other competitor’s handsets.
Further, Nokia also failed to capitalize on the production of tablets. Even though Samsung was the leader, other local companies joined the race in producing tablets. It wasn’t until 2013 that Nokia launched its first tablet in its other markets but not the Indian one. Altogether, Nokia still somehow managed to dominate the Indian’s smartphone market up to 2012. However, in 2013, Samsung surpassed Nokia market share. In the same year, Nokia announced that the US-based Microsoft Company would be acquiring some of its shares.
Currently,competitors such as Apple and Samsung are enjoying a considerable share of the market. It may be difficult for Nokia to establish its former place as the global leader in cell phone, but this is not to mean that it is impossible. Therefore, we recommend the need to be conscious of time and flexible. The digital world is highly dynamic, as such leaders should not operate with an old mindset but should be agile, and vigilant to comprehend changing customers behaviors, and needs, changes in the market as well as competitors aggressiveness. Conceivably, companies need to distinguish itself against its competitors. However, at times following in the major trends may be crucial to the survival of a company, especially in the digital context.
Kumar, S. G. & Perepu, I. (2014). Nokia: Losing Ground in India. IBS Center for Management Research (ICMR). Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.



Chapter 4
Adjusting entries of journals/ trial balance is done to close the books of accounts into the retained earnings; retained earnings is the basis of preparing the income statement and subsequent financial statements. For the most part, the process is complicated, however accounting software easily captures and automates the entire process. Nonetheless, it is essential to have an understanding of the underlying process that is involved in adjusting entries. The accounting cycle entails;
transactions are recorded in the journal
journal entries are posted to appropriate ledger accounts
a trial balance is constructed
adjusting entries are prepared and posted
an adjusted trial balance is prepared
formal financial statements are produced (perhaps with the assistance of a worksheet)
A worksheet can be used for adjustment; the worksheet contains columns for the trial balance, column reflecting adjustments to the trial balance, the final trial balance, the income statement, retained earnings and the statement of financial position (B sheet).
The trial balance contains credit and debit balances of the company, any adjustments are made under the adjustment column, and an updated version of the same is presented in the adjusted trial balance and extended to the income statement, retained earnings account, and the balance sheet.
In essence, the entire process primarily seeks to update the retained earnings balances in the ledger account to be equivalent to those at the end of period balances. Temporary accounts (dividends, expenses, and retained earnings are zeroed out while items in real accounts are carried forward to the next accounting period in the b/sheet.
All expenses and incomes are represented in the income statement with a positive balance (profit), and a negative one is a loss.
A net profit is an income and therefore credited to the income account and debited to retained earnings accounts. The profit is carried to the balance sheet under the equity section.
Income statement XXX
Retained Earnings XXX
A net loss is treated oppositely such that
Net loss is credited to the income statement and debited to retained earnings, and corresponding adjustments are made to the b/sheet. In sum;
Retained Earnings XXX
Incomes Statement XXX
Other assets and liabilities are closed off to the balance sheet. The balance sheet contains the assets, liabilities, and equity.
Important metrics for measuring a company’s liquidity are the quick ratio and the current ratio (can be easily manipulated because of the inclusion of inventory) and the quick ratio.
Financial statements should be accompanied by notes.
Chapter Five
Merchant Operations; these are online-based stores
The layout of the income statement begins with revenues minus the operating expenses, which is equal to a profit or a loss.
Recognition of sales is pegged on the nature of sales; credit sales are treated as follows;
A/C receivables XXX
Sales A/c XXX
Cash sales
Sales XXX
Sales returns and allowances have the effect of reducing debtors (credit sales) and the sales increase such that
Sales A/C XXX
Debtors A/C XXX
Trade discounts are given to promote customers to purchase in bulk and also pay promptly. Trade discounts reduce the amount the customer would pay and is, therefore, an expense to the business. Sales are recognized net trade discounts.
Online stores typically require credit cards for payments. Customers using the same are charged a given interest. The benefit is that the merchant is able to receive an immediate payment of the goods and services. Sales are recognized in full and the accompanying interest charge on the credit card is billed as an expense.
Merchants give their suppliers cash discounts to encourage them to pay promptly within a stipulated period. The discount is an expense to the company that reduces the amount the customer (the debtor) would have paid.
To stay afloat, companies, need to have a proper inventory system in place. Inventory management starts from acquisition of the inventory for resale. Recording of the same can be done periodically or immediately that is following acquisition, then resale. Purchase a/c keeps track of inventory purchases. At purchases the inventory a/c is debited as stock has increased while the purchase a/c is credited under cost of goods sold.
Similar to returns on sales, purchases made ca also be returned. Purchase returns and allowances reduce the amount the company would have paid to its suppliers such that;
Account payables XXX
Purchase ReturnsXXX
Purchase discounts
Just like the business gives its customers discounts, the company’s suppliers also offer trade discounts to encourage prompt payments. The company may recognize the same as under gross or net valuations.Most important to note is that purchase discounts are an income to the business as they reduce the amount payable to the creditors.
Freight in charges are mostly covered by the company, and therefore a company takes in the freight charge (an expense too) as part of the total purchase cost. To this point the net purchases are calculated as;
To get the total cost of goods sold; Opening Stock + Purchases+ Freight in Charges- Purchase discounts + Purchase Returns – closing stock
There is no point of maintaining a purchase account as accounting systems automatically adjusts the inventory.
Following all these introductions, ie the purchase account; the P&L A/c is prepared to meet reflect on additional items; this can be done on a multiple or singular format.
Most importantly, it is crucial to have in place an accounting system that can trace all the processes within a platform of accountability. A control system is put in place to ensure reliability as well as to safeguard a company’s assets. They include all the processes that accompany accounting transactions. For instance, a company’s physical assets can be safeguarded by locks or CCTV cameras.
Purchases of assets should follow a laid down procedure from a purchase requisition such that a requisition for supply is made after analyzing several quotations. After a requisition, then comes delivery, how will the items be tracked? A delivery note should accompany all the items and staff should be put in place to ensure that the items meet the terms of sale. Items should then be entered into the inventory system and updated. The subsequent trail should be in paper as well as on the online system. Payment of the invoices should also follow strict controls.
As to cash control, cash should be safely secured from the bank to the company’s safe.Only one or two personnel should have the key to the safe should, and CCTV cameras should be put to monitor movements in and out of the safe house. The cashier in charge of distributing money to the company say for petty cash should do so after approval from the finance head. In most cases, the accountant asks for a specified amount of petty cash. The amount should be documented with signatures from all those that are responsible for approving to such payments. Once the cashier receives the petty cash, all payments say travel reimbursements or medical should be accompanied by receipts, such that the cashier will give a specified sum and attach the receipt as proof of the payment. The party receiving the payment should also sign after accepting payment. For cash wages, the supervisor should include a list of all the names of the employees, their ID, and corresponding signatures. The laborers may have to collect money physically with their IDS and then sign after receiving payments. Lastly, the cashier should reconcile all the cash payments and ensure that the balance in hand equals what she has in the petty cash box. Essentially, this process seeks to document the trail of cash throughout the company as well as provide accountability to how the company’s cash is spent.
Chapter six_ Cash and Highly-Liquid Investments
In accounting cash is not only presented in coins and currency but also comprise of money orders and deposits with banks. Generally, cash is treated as a liquid current asset. However, cash and cash equivalent cannot be easily transferred and is thus recognized as a long term investment to the company.
With this said, a company needs to manage its cash such that it has enough in store to meet its day to day obligation and invest the excess amounts to generate income for the company. A company resorts to internal and external strategies to manage its cash flows. Internal policies comprise of several activities within the company such as delaying payments, putting in place cash controls and accelerating collection points such as using credit cards for collection.
Movement of cash in and out of business is reasonable. Cash may thus come in as physical cash from cash receipts and through banks as credit sales from credit cards or customers making cheque deposits.It becomes crucial to manage cash flows to see, thus how much the company has. Bank reconciliation is a process that attempts to reconcile the differences in bank statements to those in the company’s cash ledger accounts. For the most part, differences are inevitable as the business may have recognized cheques that are yet to be presented to the bank and the bank may charge bank charges and interest that the company has not recognized. Companies that deal with huge cash disbursements and receipts perform a proof in cash reconciliation in addition to the bank reconciliation to eliminate periodic differences in cash and bank balances.
Petty cash is needed for daily company expenditures. The control system for cash discussed above have tackled this discussion. However, the entries for petty cash has not been discussed. Even though the journal entry represents easily debiting the petty cash a/c and crediting the corresponding bank balance where the money has been withdrawn from it is important to note that journal entries to this transaction involve debiting the appropriate expense account as is represented by the receipts to replenish the cash account. Therefore, at the end of the day we have the expense accounts which will be closed off to the income statement and the cash balances which will be closed off to cash/bank in the b/sheet.
Petty cash balances may also differ such that there are differences in the cash and receipt balances. This could be as a result of errors in giving change or an amount that was paid off without a corresponding receipt of proof. When this happens, there is need to reconcile the differences by debiting the petty cash a/c with a shortage and crediting it with an over excess amount. Debiting and crediting corresponding balances will offset the differences in the receipt and cash balances. To this end I realize that an accountant may be required to pay in case of an undercharge or isn’t so?
As earlier said, a business may seek avenues such as stock market, hedge funds, derivatives, futures, forwards, and so on to invest the extra cash from the business to generate income. This happens as with time; the value of the investment grows to surpass its fair value. Unfortunately, the investment may also fail to grow and instead generate losses.The journal entry below help understands the process.

  • When the company makes short term investments they withdraw cash from the bank ac to the short term investments (both are assets) an increase in assets, therefore;
  • An increase in fair value results to gains such that there is an increase in short term investment (increases in assets are always debited), and an increase in incomes (credited)
  • On the contrary, realized losses have an opposite effect such that
  • Investment may also earn dividends or interest charges all which represent incomes to the company such that dividends/ interest received from the company are credited and the amount received debited to bank/cash

Short term investment Dr
Bank A/cCr
Short term investment XXX
Realized gains from investmentsXXX
Realized losses XXX
Short Term investment XXX
Cash/Bank XXX
Dividend/ interest income XXX
Other companies choose to maintain the changes in short term investment using a valuation account. The valuation account primarily highlights the changes in the investment reflecting on the gains or losses.Losses are debited on the income statement and gains credited, the realized gain or loss is netted to the cash/bank in the b/sheet.


Overview of FedEx

FedEx is a leading global provider of logistic services. Founded in 1971, the company furnishes customers and business across the globe with a comprehensive portfolio that comprise of e-commerce, transportation and business services (FedEx, 2019). The company provides incorporated business services through companies that are competing conjointly and managed collaboratively under the FedEx brand.
Types of services that the company provides
FedEx is a shipping company that offers a wide range of logistics to more than 80 countries across the globe. In retrospect, FedEx operates under distinct platforms to serve its customers. For instance, the Federal Express Corporation is an express premium courier service for businesses and individuals. They provide express shipping services at a relatively short time mostly between 3- 5 working days.
The FedEx Ground is much cheaper than the express option. It offers delivery services to the USA and Canada and has in place money-back guarantees for customer complaints. FedEx Ground is operated by independent owners who own trucks and control delivery routes and territories.
FedEx Freight is involved in the shipping of small packages and full load truckloads. The FedEx Custom Critical provides delivery services to expedited surface and critical freight. This option is by far the most expensive and flexible service option out of the above, and it’s also the fastest providing door to door safe delivery mostly within one day or freight delivery for valuable and items that are considered hazardous. Lastly, the FedEx trade network provides services that are meant to simplify the shipping operations for its customers. It offers flexible end to end services such as cargo distribution, marketing, technical support, brokerage, and trade facilitation. This service mainly targets business that is involved in transporting huge cargoes.
As seen, FedEx is a service provider and not a manufacturing or producer. Therefore, FedEx does not buy products for resale. Conceivably then the company does not have any inventory. Indeed, the company’s balance sheet does not have stocks.
Analysis of the company’s annual 2019 report shows that the company’s sales have been increasing over the years; in 2017 the revenues were $ 60,319, in 2018 $ 65,450, and $69,693 in 2019 representing a 6% and 8% increase.It is difficult to ascertain the relationship between inventories and revenues in our case. However, the section below highlights the changes in account receivables

2019 2018 2017 2016
Receivables 9,116 8,481 7,599 7,252
Sales 69,693 65,450 $60,319 50,365
Changes in Receivables 7% 10% 5%
Changes in Sales 6% 8% 17%

From this we can conclude that an increase in debtors corresponds to an increase in revenues. However, this is inconclusive as changes in sales could be driven by multiple other factors other than trade debtors. For example, acquisitions and mergers could lead to improved sales. Also, improvements and expansion of facilities within the various segments could have necessitated an increase in sales. The bottom line argument in our case is that there is indeed a positive relationship between a company’s receivables and revenues in that the more the customers, the more the company sales. The caution is that this should not be considered in isolation as sales could also be driven by several other factors including sales commissions and advertisements.
Risks the company faces
The scope of operations and activities means that FedEx is exposed to risks that have a material impact on its future. To begin with, the company is exposed to a competitive retail environment which can affect the company’s margins. Competition from competitors such as DHL, UPS can affect the business, upcoming small scale domestic players within the various countries can also affect the business.FedEx counters competitive risks by building customers loyalty and trust by delivering seamless and customized services for the customers. FedEx also offers differentiated and innovative services.
Technological Developments and Disruptions are two-sided facilitating expansion of business and also building up competition by creating new business models such that consumers can understand and manage logistics within different platforms. Fed Ex has in place a team that actively monitors technological innovation through training and participation and exploring innovation in new business models such as the “Critical Inventory Logistics, a supply chain service that is designed to enable customers in high-tech industries – such as telecommunication, semiconductor, and biomedical — to more efficiently manage high value and time critical inventory by utilizing FedEx Kinko’s stores (FedEx, 2019).”
FedEx has broad exposure to changes in regulatory policies including taxation, pricing, retail operations, royalties, and so on. Changes in regulatory policy may affect the financial outcomes and even the viability of existing and proposed projects. FedEx manages exposure to extensive industrial regulatory risks by taking an active role in leading debates and engaging with policymakers in all governmental levels by participating in public forums, industrial associations and think tanks (FedEx, 2019).
FedEx is also exposed to regulations of the energy and environment decarbornization, which includes the need to invest in high carbon-intensive assets and also participate in increased control of emission of greenhouse gases. FedEx strategy to transition to a carbon-constrained future provides for the integration of energy initiatives.
FedEx is also exposed to financial risks in the debt instruments, interest payments and foreign exchange differences across the countries it operates in. Movements in interest rates and fluctuations in foreign exchange could lead to a decrease in USD revenues or increased payments with respect to the dollar. Fed Ex manages foreign exchange and interest rate changes by utilizing a combination of derivatives and physical positions.
Although the company’s annual statements show that the company is financially flexible, this flexibility can further be affected if the company fails to appropriately manage its liquidity especially in the event where there is no available market when refinancing is required.
There is also the risk of creditors falling to pay their debts. Some counterparts may be unable to fulfill their obligations. FedEx has in place risk assessments and also credit support to manage credit risk.
Economic trends and anti-trade measures affect FedEx especially because the transportation industry is cyclonical and susceptible to macroeconomic measurements such as changing demographics and income distribution within the population, such that the company’s demand is pegged on macro trends that accompany demographics. The state of the overall global economy also affects FedEx trade because it’s an international player. Aspects such as world trade policies, taxes, government relationships, bilateral trade agreements among countries, anti-trade and protect measures by other countries may affect FedEx operations. Unfortunately, there are no measures to protect against such macroeconomic trends.
Altogether, FedEx has fully disclosed the controls and procedures that are involved in the preparation of financial statement in alignment with the requirements from the Securities
Exchange Act. The full disclosure of the information is essential and to some extent gives the company a competitive advantage in attracting potential investors.
FedEx Annual Statements. (2019). 2019 10-K form. Retrieved from
FedEx Annual Statements. (2018). 2019 10-K form. Retrieved from
FedEx Annual Statements. (2017). 2017 10-K form. Retrieved from