What is institutional discrimination? How does individual discrimination differ from institutional discrimination?
Discrimination occurs on various occasions and levels, individually and institutionally. Individual discrimination has been witnessed on many occasions, and it has been considered to be both obvious and conscious. A solution to individual discrimination can be found by removing the people who practice discrimination or by giving them warnings to stop the behavior. Institutional discrimination is built on the structure of a specific organization, making it difficult for the responsible people to fight it. This makes it (institutional discrimination) more tenacious. Unlike the individual discrimination which is based personal perception of things, institutional discrimination is built on the relationships between employees working in the institution.
What is the glass ceiling? How does it differ from the glass wall? How do they both prevent advancement?
The glass ceiling is a term used to demonstrate the barriers that are usually fixed to prevent the minority groups especially women from occupying the top management positions. Glass ceiling came as an institution literature or language to refer to such barriers, the barriers included restrictions and special requirements for one to qualify for such positions. Unlike the glass ceilings that hinder individuals from advancing to higher levels, the glass walls limit women and other minority groups within certain departments. The employees in a certain institution, in the olden days it used to be women and other minority groups. They were pushed into specific jobs that allowed no executive advancement or promotion. Certain departments were kept aside for such groups, glass walls and glass elevators served the same purpose. Women and other individuals working in such department could be promoted but within regulated limits making it difficult for them ever to occupy the senior positions within an institution or co-operate organization.
Richard, S. (2012) Race and ethnic groups. 13th Edition, New York