Literature Reviews


The safe, dependable, and economic process of any nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a topmost importance to countries that have the capacity to handle the use of nuclear energy. In the United States, the nuclear industry’s continual upgrading of technology, as well as advanced resources and nuclear fuels, remains vital to the industry’s achievement (Bragg-Sitton, 2014). Many decades of research joint with repetitive operations have created steady developments in technology and have also produced a wide base of information, know-how, and awareness on light-water reactor fuel performance both under normal and accident circumstances (Bragg-Sitton, 2014).

One of the exclusive undertakings of the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in the United States is to produce nuclear fuels and claddings with improved accident tolerance. In 2011, after the earthquake and tsunami attacks in Japan and the resultant destruction to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, improving the accident tolerance of LWRs turned into a subject of serious debate (Bragg-Sitton, 2014). As such, with the directions from Congress in the United States, NE commenced accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) improvement as a key factor of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (Bragg-Sitton, 2014). Before the accident at Fukushima, the importance of advanced LWR fuel progress was on developing nuclear fuel performance in terms of improved burnup for waste minimization, improved power density for power advancements, and improved fuel consistency (Bragg-Sitton, 2014).



Why use Accident-tolerant Fuel (ATF)

  • Protection
  • Dependability
  • Lower Operating Cost (Westinghouse, 2015)

Neutron properties of U3Si2

The mixed U3Si 2-Al fuel is a newly established dispersal fuel structural material used mainly in research reactors (Yong, 2004). The processing technique impacts largely on the neutron and mechanical characteristics of the dispersion fuel plate, particularly, the fatigue characteristics, which are of great importance for the dependability and performance of fuel components in most reactors. The known fatigue behaviors characterized by these neutrons can be well defined by two fracture types, that is the Mode I and the mixed mode I-II (Yong, 2004).

Burn Up limit

A term largely used in nuclear power technology, burnup (also identified as fuel utilization) is a degree of how much energy is taken out from a main nuclear fuel source. Burn Up is measured both as the portion of fuel atoms that went through fission in % FIMA (that is, fissions per initial metal atom) and as the real energy extracted per mass of early fuel in gigawatt-days/metric ton of thick metal or related units (ricin, 2016). To clearly understand “burnup,” it is crucial to understand more about the uranium that drives or fuels a reactor. Before fuel is made, uranium is treated to upsurge the concentration of atoms that can be divided in an organized chain response in the reactor (ricin, 2016).

So, the atoms will basically release energy as they divide. This energy generates the heat which is then turned into electricity. All together, the greater the concentration of those atoms, the lengthier the fuel can withstand a chain reaction (U.S. NRC, 2015). And the lengthier the fuel rests in the reactor, the greater the burnup. Generally, the burnup level interferes with the fuel’s temperature, physical makeup and radiation. Therefore, how hot and how radioactive used fuel is rest on burnup, along with the fuel’s initial makeup and situations in the core. All these aspects must be taken into consideration especially during the designing and approving dry storing and transport structures for used fuel (U.S. NRC, 2015).

There is a substantial difference among fuel assemblies designed for the various types of reactors. PWR fuel

Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are a common type of nuclear reactors characteristically accounting for two-thirds of the present fixed nuclear production volume globally (WNA, 2015). A PWR core normally uses water as both a moderator and a main coolant. This is kept under substantial pressure (about 10 MPa) to stop it from boiling, since its temperature increases to about 330°C after passage of fuel. It then passes through huge pipes to a steam generator (WNA, 2015).

BWR fuel

Boiling water reactors (BWRs) are the second most utilized nuclear reactor types essentially accounting for almost one-quarter of the fitted nuclear production capacity. Inside a boiling water reactor, water is turned immediately to steam in the reactor pressure container at the top of the core and this steam which is about 290°C and 7 MPa is then applied to drive the turbines (WNA, 2015). BWRs also use fuel rods that contain zirconium-clad uranium oxide ceramic pellets.

Generally, the different activities related with the generation of electricity from nuclear reactions are collectively referred to as the nuclear fuel cycle (WNA, 2015). The nuclear fuel cycle begins with the mining of uranium and ends with the discarding of nuclear leftovers or waste. With the recycling of used fuel as a choice for nuclear energy, the phases form a true cycle (WNA, 2015).

Neutron properties of UO2

  • Enables suitable thermal features and compatibility with UO2 fuel for use in higher heat rate applications.
  • Maintains the small/no fuel clad gap property yielding good general thermal conductivity of zirconium cladding.
  • They are electrically neutral since they can go deep into matter.
  • Microscopically magnetic, they can show magnetism
  • The energy of millielectronvolts contained in UO2 can show the motion of the neutrons.
  • They are randomly sensitive.

Notably, in nuclear and particle physics, the idea of a neutron cross section is mainly used to express the possibility of communication between an incident neutron and a target nucleus. In combination with the neutron flux, it allows the control of the reaction rate, for instance, to determine the thermal control of a nuclear power plant. The standard unit for calculating the cross section is the barn, which is equal to 10−28 m2 or 10−24 cm2. The greater neutron cross section, the more probable a neutron will react with the nucleus (WNA, 2015).

Fabrication of UO2 pellets

Oxide fuel often comes in the form of cylinder-shaped pellets that measure about both in 1cm in height and diameter. These pellets are fabricated by precipitate metallurgy, extracted from enhanced uranium oxide precipitate (Parisot, 2009).Uranium enhancement is undertaken by way of the vaporous UF6 molecule. The uranium fluoride is again transformed into uranium oxide through the means of a dry transformation procedure (Parisot, 2009).The entire procedure comprises the use of an incorporated facility, including, at the head end, a hydrolysis reactor, and a rotary kiln, inside which defluorination is achieved by reductive pyrolysis, which results into the creation of uranium dioxide precipitate (Parisot, 2009).

zr neutron resistance

Zirconium is a chemical component with symbol Zr and bearing the atomic number 40. The name zirconium is formed from the mineral known as zircon, the most essential source of zirconium (Lee, 2005). The term zircon generally comes from the Persian term zargun which means “gold-colored”. It is a radiant, grey-white, strong transition metal that bears the similarity of hafnium and, to a slighter extent, titanium (Lee, 2005). Zirconium is regularly utilized as opacifier and a refractory even though it is used in small quantities as an alloying agent for its robust resistance to erosion (Lee, 2005). Zirconium creates a selection of non-living and organo metallic compounds for instance, zirconium dioxide and zirconocene dichloride, correspondingly. In this particular compound, five isotopes ensue naturally of which three are steady. Zirconium compounds have no well-known biological responsibility.

Cost of UO2 VS U3Si2

The entire cost of UO2 assembly entirely rests on the enrichment, the cost of uranium ore, transformation and enrichment, with fabrication as a smaller factor. With the anticipated ore and enrichment costs, the UO2 expenditures range from 1800 to 2000 $/kgU, or between $3.8b and $4.5b for a complete 100tPu project (Walter, 2012). Generally, the cost of U3Si2 needed for any given case is associated with weight percentages of Carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the UC charge (Hausner, 2012). Where C’ is the weight percentage of carbon creating carbon monoxide (Hausner, 2012).





Bragg-Sitton S. (2014), Overview of International Activities in Accident Tolerant Fuel Development for Light Water Reactors. Retrieved on 25th January 2016 from

Hausner H.H (2012), Modern Developments in Powder Metallurgy: Volume 3 Development and Future Prospects. Springer Science & Business Media

Keller C. (2013), Uranium: Supplement Volume C5 Uranium Dioxide, UO2, Physical Properties. Electrochemical Behavior. Springer Science & Business Media.

Lee K.L., (2005),Structure-Property Relations in Nonferrous Metals: Engineering case studies online.John Wiley & Sons

Parisot F.J. (2009), Nuclear fuels. Retrieved on 25th January 2016 from

ricin (2016), About fuel burn-up rates. Retrieved on 25th January 2015 from

U.S. NRC (2015),Backgrounder on High Burnup Spent Fuel. Retrieved on 25th January 2015 from

Walter C.E (2012), Advanced Nuclear Systems Consuming Excess Plutonium: Volume 15 of Nato Science Partnership Subseries: 1. Springer Science & Business Media

Westinghouse (2015), Accident-tolerant Fuel Game-changing Technology for Safety, Reliability and Lower Operating Cost. Retrieved on 25th January 2016 from

World Nuclear Association (2015), Nuclear Fuel Fabrication. Retrieved on 28th January 2016 from

World Nuclear Association (2015), The Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Retrieved on 28th January 2016 from

Yong X., (2004), Sample records for u3si2 dispersion fuels. Retrieved on 25th January 2016 from


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