1. Indel is a term used in molecular biology and it is used to refer to the insertion or the deletion of bases in the DNA of a living organism. It also defines a mutation class that results from both insertion and deletion of nucleotides. It is useful in the change of DNA and its contents.
  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) refers to a variation at a single position in the DNA sequence among individuals. A population can be classified under this if it does not carry similar nucleotide at a specific position in the DNA sequence. SNPs are used by scientists in identifying genes responsible for certain traits.
  3. A copy number variation (CNV) occurs when the number of copies of a specific gene varies from one individual to the other. From the study of the Human Genome, it has been found out that a genome gains or losses genetic material. CNV is useful in cancer research and has been identified to be one of the causative.
  4. Frame shift is a mutation which is as a result of insertions and deletions of nucleotides in the DNA sequence and the number of nucleotides is not divisible by three. Frame shift mutations increase an individual’s susceptibility to certain cancers. The mutation is said to be resistant to the HIV retrovirus.
  5. An intron is a nucleotide sequence found within a gene and is removed through RNA splicing when the final RNA product matures. Intron loss occurs when an intron less cDNA combines with a genomic version of a gene through the deletion of one or more.
  6. Non-coding mutation refers to the mutation in a set of non-coding DNA sequences that are part of the DNA of an organism and this category of DNA do not encode protein sequences. Non coding DNA is associated with epigenetic activities that bring about the complexity of species.
  7. Stop codon can be defined as a nucleotide triplet that is found within the messenger RNA whose purpose is to signal the termination of translation. Stop Condons carry out their role through binding release factors that cause the disassociation of ribosomal subunits that release the amino acid chain.
  8. Chromosome inversion refers to the rearrangement of chromosomes segments through which chromosomes are reversed from end to end. The inversion occurs as a result of a breakage of a chromosome that rearranges itself again. These inversions have some effects in that they lead to lowered fertility levels as a result of the production of gametes which are unbalanced.
  9. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an abnormal number of a chromosome in a cell. It originates from cell division in the case where chromosomes fail to separate properly between two cells. Aneuploidy results in the death of developing foetus known as miscarriage and also leads to sexual disorders.
  10. Mutation selection balance can be defined as equilibrium in the number of deleterious alleles in a population that is done at the same rate at which deleterious alleles are created by mutations. The concept is used in evolutionary genetics, in theoretical models and has also been applied in the development of beneficial mutations.







Shull, G. H., Jones, D. F., Dunn, L. C., Stern, C., Brink, R. A., & Genetics Society of America. (1965). Genetics. Bethesda, MD [etc.: Genetics Society of America.



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