In China, motor vehicle use will probably increase substantially over the next several decades. This is a result of China’s rising global economic power, which has already had an enormous environmental effect.

  1. Research the impact of fossil fuel emissions from motor vehicles on human health in China. Summarize your findings. Correlate your findings from China’s fossil fuel emissions from motor vehicles to at least three different human health impacts.

Harmful effects of vehicle exhaust

Fossil fuel emissions from china motor vehicles have increased causing harmful effects on human health in China. Vehicles using diesel engines emit a mixture of gases such as particulate matter (PM), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxides (NO), Hydrocarbons (HC), and Volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Various studies on health indicate that such diesel extracts affect the respiratory system such as allergies, lung function, and bronchitis. It also increases heart problems, lung cancer, and premature death (EHHI, 2016).

Particulate matter

Particulate matter is informed of liquid and solid particles that are dark and large and resemble smoke or soot. Fine particulate matter comprises of small objects in the air that include dust, soot, dirt, liquid droplets, and smoke (EHHI, 2016). Almost all diesel particulate matter is fine less than 2.5 microns in diameter. Particulate matter when breathed travels deep in the lungs causing asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema. Small particles are trapped in the lungs while the smallest particles pass through lungs to the blood stream. The particles cause great problems in health such as difficulties in breathing, pain, and coughs. It accelerates asthma, bronchitis, and decreases functioning of the lungs. It weakens the heart and leads to heart attacks.

Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, volatile compounds are colorless, without odor and are poisonous.


Vehicle exhaust harm asthmatic and cause asthma since they affect lung function, accelerate allergic reactions and cause constrictions of the airway. Fine particles penetrate in the lungs and cause inflammation of the circulatory system thus damage cells that lead to respiratory problems.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Emissions from vehicles are harmful to people affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) like bronchitis.

Cardiovascular disease

Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions lead to congestive failure of cardiac system, myocardial function and increase in cardiac arrhymia (Maryland State Government, 2016). The more the concentration of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants among other airborne particles, the more the increase of mortality and hospitalization. Heart attacks are a major occurrence among those exposed to heavy traffic.


Vehicles produce many carcinogenic chemicals containing benzene, formaldehyde and one, 3-butadiene that contribute to more than half cancer cases in Japan.

Based on 300 million motor vehicles, the Chinese would have to dispose of, or recycle, several hundred million tires per year. Evaluate human health and environmental impacts of discarded tires.

 Soil effect and environmental global warming

Discarded tires have various effects on the environment and human beings. Risks begin from their chemical composition, toxins from tire decomposition and tire fires that harm the environment, soil, and air. Tires contaminate the environment through chemicals released to the environment during decomposition. Hazardous wastes contain oils that contaminate soils, heavy metals like lead that stay in the environment over a long time and accumulate in the ozone layer causing global warming.

Fire risk

Discarded tires cause fires due to their oils contained inside. Tire fires emit toxic gases such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, volatile organic compounds and other hazardous air pollutants. Exposure to such hazards leads to skin and eye irritation, and mucous membranes, cancer, depression and respiratory problems (OEHHA, 2007). The gases also lead to gene mutation. The fires are difficult to control and put off. Smoke emitted has toxins and particulate matter that worsen proper functioning of the respiratory system. Moreover, it increases chances of contracting cancer, cardiac diseases, and asthma.

Breed mosquitoes

Discarded tires are a huge environmental risk since they store water during rainy seasons and breed mosquitoes that cause malaria. Vector-borne diseases such as encephalitis affect human beings. Rodents inhabit in those tires and destroy planted crops.

Injuries in children Playgrounds

Discarded tires act as playground for young children. However, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) conducted a research and found various risks of discarded tires. Playground-containing tires emit chemicals that harm children due to their skin contact and ingestion. Young children ingest tire extracts such as loose rubber shreds (acute exposure), ingested through hand-to-surface contact and hand-to-mouth contact (chronic exposure) and sensitization of the skin through dermal contact (acute exposure).

Discarded tires used in playground are among highest contributors of fall-related injuries.


Ingested tire extracts emit carcinogens that increase risks for cancer. Tier contains Zinc and four PAHs chemicals, which are ingested through hand-to-mouth contact, which increases risk for cancer. Injuries from use of tires causes head damage and trauma as well as brain injury.

THREE examples of inter-national and intra-national water conflicts

Water is the source of life and hence becomes the main source of conflicts among many nations. Water disputes arises from shortages, pollution and water ways among others.

Water shortages

Shortage of water has been the main source of conflicts among many nations and people of the same tribe. It has brought instability among nations and wars. Studies regarding freshwater sources indicate that only 1250 square km of freshwater are remaining in the world in regions that are arid and semi-arid. Acute shortages of water are experienced in Northern Africa and Middle East. However. it remains the main source of conflict since it is useful in irrigation (Grossman, 2004).

Tigris-Euphrates basin originates from Turkey and its water shed is distributed over many countries and ethnic groups. Due to increase in population, there arise various disagreements over water. Water scarcity over the basin of Mesopotamia has caused disagreements in the neighboring nations.


Conflicts involving waterways result because water originates from one region and passes through many other countries before arriving to the sea and oceans. Many people from different countries share the rivers coming from the water sources.

Conflicts arise as states from water origins attempt to gain control over water. Examples include River Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, and River Jordan. In Middle East River Jordan originates in Lebanon and has a flow of 1200 million cubic meters in every year. Jordan River basin is based in arid region parts of Syria, Israel, and Jordan. Major conflicts arise because the river flows in an arid climate and has low precipitation making it a very valuable resource. Countries along River Jordan are very poor and depend on ground water aquifers for water supply. Israel uses the greatest amount of water from the basin (Grossman, 2004). As a result, there arise water disputes due to use and overuse among other political and territory issues.

Population increase

Population has increased largely resulting in increased dependence on water sources. Management of limited water resources has led to challenges. Failure of existing laws on water sharing has led to dominance of Syria and Israel over the origin of water sources.

Mountain aquifer

Mountain aquifer founder under West Bank has been a point of contention between Palestinians and Israel. The problems arise from domination of supplies from ground water by the state and settlers of Israel. Palestine citizen also bargain for denial of access to various water supplies (Preservation Park, 2016).Palestine dwellers get charged almost thrice for consuming water from West Bank (Villers).





EHHI. (2016).the harmful effects of vehicle exhaust. Environment and human health, Inc.            Retrieved from http://www.ehhi.org/reports/exhaust/summary.shtml

Grossman, Z. (2004).water wars and international conflict. Retrieved from             http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/OFORIAA/

Maryland State Government. (2016). Diesel emissions health and environmental effects. Retrieved from             http://www.mde.maryland.gov/programs/Air/MobileSources/DieselVehicleInformation/            HealthandEnvironmentalEffects/Pages/index.aspx

Preservation Park. (2016). Water and conflict. Retrieved from http://pacinst.org/issues/water-and-            conflict/

OEHHA. (2007).Evaluation of health effects of recycled waste tires in playground and track products. Integrated waste management board, 1-147.



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