An Overview

A drug is any substance, be it synthetic or natural, other than food, which causes an alteration of function or/and structure in a living organism by its nature chemically. Drugs, for instance psychoactive drugs, for example heroin and cocaine, have the ability to change the human neurochemical processes in the brain once consumed and consequently constitute behavioral changes or changes in experience. Often, psychoactive drugs have been abusively used for people to get over some desired feelings and for some notions that they will cause them to be hyperactive and ‘strong’ to get over tasks with ease or even avoid some depressing and stressful experiences in life (Ray, Hart & Ksir, 2013).

In America, the potential for psychoactive drug use to culminate in substance abuse and dependence is a concern for public health and safety as many people, even across the world, are turning to the abuse of these drugs resulting to acts of violence. There is a trend and notion that drugs have a way to make people hyperactive and add on their natural energy. For instance many people use and abuse marijuana with the notion that it will make them more energetic and able to go over tasks with ease (Ray, Hart & Ksir, 2013).

Antecedently, illicit drug use and abuse is much associated to factors including: childhood exposure to drug abuse, individual factors and feelings, childhood and early teenage adjustments, substance abusing company/peers affiliation, novelty-hunting, physical abuses, juvenile sexual abuse among other factors. Collectively, drug abuse and dependence is much related to a range circumstances and processes of early life that greatly risk individuals to drug abuse (Ray, Hart & Ksir, 2013).

Some of the risk factors that majorly constitute drug abuse include early aggressive behavior, mental disorders, peer pressure, family un-involvement in controlling drug exposure and availability, family history of drug addiction and abuse, gender (with males most vulnerable),  anxiety, depression, loneliness,  poverty, and taking a highly addictive drug. Some of the protective factors may include fostering self-control, parental monitoring, growing academic competence and employing anti-drug abuse policies with a strong neighborhood and community attachment.







Oakley RayCarl Hart, and Charles Ksir, (2013), Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior, McGraw-Hill Education.

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