To a larger extent, the psychology manifestation and experience of any kind of emotion are characteristically subjective by mainly our social experiences and learning procedures. Basically, as humans we normally react to the social environment by emotionally assessing the environment (Clark, 2015). Additionally, we act in line with our emotional conditions in the background or context in which our knowledgeable social and cultural principles play a crucial role for the manner in which we assess and act. For instance, what irritates an individual is closely related to the ideas of justice he or she has generally learned and whose harm makes others feel annoyed (Clark, 2015). Therefore, it is then permitted to express this irritation openly or if one is coerced to suppress it depends on time and the society he or she is living in. Therefore, the sociology of emotions may agree with the above said dimensions. For instance, if one is kicked in the knee the abrupt physical reaction is jerking the leg and crying out in pain. Essentially, this physical reaction to this kind of stimulus is the same for all humans which can basically be regarded as the sociology of emotions.

Emotional socialization is a big concern currently. As a matter of fact, developmental psychologists have generally began to study the responsibility of several learning processes, role modeling, imitation, empathy, instruction-in shaping kids’ emotional reactions. This psychologists are also beginning to file the ages at which kids have learnt certain emotional knowledge and skills. However, psychologists largely observe sex and age-associated differences in socialization practices and kids’ knowledge; ethnic, social class, and structural changes. It is therefore right to postulate that, Sociologists have much to give, particularly in bringing attention to structural issues that should impact socialization procedures and outcomes.



Elements of emotions

Social construction

For a majority of sociologists, emotions are generally created or constructed in the logic that what individuals feel is mainly habituated by socialization into culture and by participating in social structures (Turner, 2015). Cultural beliefs and standards as they impact on social structures define what emotions are to be practiced and how these culturally defined emotions are to be conveyed. Therefore, it is true to say that emotions are social structures.


Generally, emotions involve a biological constituent. William James a Harvard psychologist documented that emotions are the result of physiological variations in the body. When an individual observes something in the environment, there is generally an immediate change for example, the initiation of the sympathetic nervous system which essentially registers the specific effects to the organs and parts of the body (Turner, 2015). Therefore, these psychological variations direct an individual to relate the body sensation to an emotion. However, sociologists have generally been unwilling to consider the impact of biology on any social procedure.


If biological procedures are crucial in comprehending or understanding emotions so too are cognitive procedures. Cognitive approach to emotions has been the main perspective for psychologists especially in the present years. This kind of technique stresses on the role of judgments in impacting people’s emotions (Turner, 2015). The main idea here is that emotions are not created until there is an appraisal of events in a situation. The evaluation of objects is guided by the extent to which they are hypothetically harmful to actors as they follow objectives.

From a sociological standpoint, the idea is that emotions include particular elements:

  1. The biological activation of the major systems
  2. Socially created cultural definitions and restraints on what emotions ought to be experienced and expressed in a situation
  3. The obvious expression of emotions through voice, facial and linguistic movements.

In this regard, it is true to suggest that, symbolic interactionist are concerned in the procedure of conveying meaning to activities and in reaction that follow. For example, the meaning that an individual assigns to being kicked governs how you will react to the kicker and how the kicker will react to you. Basically, that is rather how you will distinguish the incident and how you will determine how you feel concerning it and the subsequent action. Additionally, this insight will also be the basis for how you stock the event in your mind and remember about it in the future.

A jerk of the knees and a cry of pain may be expected, worldwide, physical reactions. However, there is nothing natural in the interpretation that can be placed on the situation. To symbolic interactionist the most exciting features of human behavior are those that take place when we allocate meaning to our activities or interpret the activities of others (Kollock, 2015). Philosophers and cognitive psychologists understand that to name something is to know it. This technique of object identification is crucial to human perception. Human beings name things and the react according to the suggestions carried by the particular name. Human beings do not react to the principle of the thing itself. Therefore, it is true to say that human behavior includes not just a reaction to stimulus but a procedure that facilitates between stimulus and reaction.


Clark C, (2015), Studying sympathy: Methodological confessions.

Kollock P, (2015), the production of reality. University of California, Los Angels

Turner J., (2015), the sociology of emotions. Cambridge University, University press








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