Moreover, gendered socialization exerts a comparable impact cross-culturally even on judgments of personal efficacy for the same activities performed in different contexts

EPS 596 Open Book Exam #1 (Modules 1-3): proxy agency


For this exam, the intention is that answers should be given in your own words, using your own examples, unless otherwise noted.

Open book exam questions provide an opportunity for you to go back and spend additional time on the concepts deemed important in the class. By writing out responses to these questions you are forced to articulate the construct using your own words, this is a crucial step in learning. In the past, some students have lost points by using the exam to tell anecdotes and provide personal opinions; frankly, I discourage this practice no matter how comfortable or therapeutic. There are other avenues for providing commentary {the private journal} so unless you are certain that the story you wish to share is responsive to the question posed, or the question asks that you provide an illustration, I urge you to avoid embellishment and respond concisely to the question prompt.

The use of direct quotes should be minimal; if you do choose to use a direct quote at some point, make sure that it is cited with at least quotation marks and the page number where you found it. Otherwise, try to express your ideas in your own words.

Plagiarism (using the author’s words without proper citation) will be penalized.

Respond using complete sentences that reflect your understanding of and reflection on the material. The exam items total 50 possible points.

Questions (50 points total)

1. In the Bandura article “Social Cognitive Theory in Cultural Context,” the following statement is presented:

 “Moreover, gendered socialization exerts a comparable impact cross-culturally even on judgments of personal efficacy for the same activities performed in different contexts. Women both in the United States and Japan have a high sense of efficacy for quantitative activities embedded in stereotypically feminine activities, but low perceived self-efficacy when these same quantitative activities are embedded in scientific pursuits” (p. 279).

Please explain what this means and provide an illustration that links the comment to sexism as a broader issue. You may draw upon or refer to other articles from Modules 1-3 if desired. In your own words (no direct quotes) (7 points)

2. Define proxy agency in your own words (no direct quotes).

Give examples from your own experience in the use of proxy agency to illustrate both the potential pros (beneficial aspects) AND the potential cons (harmful or counterproductive aspects) of this type of agency. (7 points)

3. In “Psychosocial identity development and cultural others” Hoare states, “No one can fully flee the bias of his or her own reality to interpret objectively the reality of another.” In your own words (no direct quotes), please first explain what this means to you and then identify what importance this has for the work of professionals in human services.  (7 points)

4. Horse in, “Reflections on American Indian Identity” discusses a paradigm of Indian identity. He writes, “For Indians, I believe this consciousness is influenced in at least five ways:

1. How well one is grounded in the native language and culture;

2. Whether one’s genealogical heritage as an Indian is valid;

3. Whether one embraces a general philosophy or worldview that derives from distinctly Indian ways, that is, old traditions;

4. The degree to which one thinks of him or herself in a certain way, that is, one’s own idea of self as an Indian person; and

5. Whether one is officially recognized as a member of a tribe by the government of that tribe.”

Choose two of these five ways and describe how identity development is impacted according to the information Horse presents. Explain this in your own words without using direct quotes. (8 points)

5. Based on the article by Helms, Jernigan, and Mascher, how and why do professionals in psychology participate in racial profiling and stereotyping? ALSO, explain the effects on racial stereotypes that arise from educational testing (like the SAT), according to the authors. These answers should be provided in your own words (no direct quotes). (7 points)

6. O’Brien & Bundy – Reaching beyond the moron discussed Eugenics. First, define both positive and negative eugenics in your own words (no direct quotes).

Many of the groups that were target by early 20th century eugenics policies are still the targets of discrimination today, though the form of discrimination has changed. Why is a discussion of eugenics relevant today, AND why is it important for human services professionals to understand this history? (7 points)

7. In “Racial ideas and gendered intimacies” Thompson writes about “the politics of intimacy.” What is meant by this expression and how have the politics of intimacy been exemplified in United States history, according to Thompson? Please explain Thompson’s view in your own words (no direct quotes). (7 points)

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