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Grounds for withholding or blocking payment: The Fraud and Illegality Exception.

Please see the topic ideas that I got, and please feel free to correct it, change it or advice me in anyway
considering its feasibility, originality, availability of materials… .
-Grounds for withholding or blocking payment: The Fraud and Illegality Exception.
Idea 1: Impact on the treatment of fraud in documentary credits and obligations of the banks to pay on a facially
complying presentation from the position of US and Singaporean courts takes on the fraud exception.
Idea 2:Impact on the treatment of fraud in documentary credits and obligations of the banks to pay on a facially
complying presentation from the position of UK, US and Singaporean courts takes on the fraud exception.
Idea 3:Impact on the treatment of fraud in documentary credits and obligations of the banks to pay on a facially
complying presentation from the position of UK and Singaporean courts takes on the fraud exception.
-Documentary Credits: The document and their Examination.
Idea 4: Whether there is a difference standard in term of documentary compliance in United States and China.
There is something that develop in America is the documentary requirements is stricter in order to justify a
buyer refusing to pay the bank, (a side deal of bifurcated approach?). So the issue maybe around then if the
Chinese bank is applying different procedures and standard and accepting everything and it goes to the U.S
bank, it is observed that it is quite common for the U.S bank to check and they apply different standard, different
procedures and refusing to pay. And here gets into a terrible difficulties which is the whole rason doctrum of the
UCP and ISBP as it develop over the year. (-ICC Report 2012, “percentage of documents rejected in the first
presentation is more than 70%)

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