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You must formulate a good research question or puzzle related to the crime/development nexus and then use a specific case study and relevant literatures to develop a constructive set of arguments

Length: 4,000 words (excluding citations and references), typed, double spaced, 12-point f
or thesis. The question must not presuppose an obvious answer and your tentative argument must
be in the form of a thesis statement which clearly identifies your claim.
Paper outline: Not required but encouraged to get feedback from the course director before
working on your paper, this outline must include your research puzzle or question, a specific case,
your tentative thesis/argument, and a sketch of the structure of the paper. To do this, ask yourself
why the issue (empirical or normative) is important to research. In your preliminary research, think
about why the case you select is suitable, a new phenomenon, assumptions and contradictions in
the literature, or a new perspective you may bring to an old issue.
A good research paper must aim at exploring why or how aspects of the selected topic. Also, the
paper should be coherent, bringing together strong evidence to consistently substantiate your
arguments as well as convincingly addressing reasonable objections to them. This means you must
clarify what you are (and not) arguing for in the paper. Also, it is extremely crucial that you address
only the questions or tasks set out in the research question, and not digress into a different direction.
Situate your argument in the scholarly literature, particularly (but not limited) the materials we
have covered in this course. You do not need an extensive literature review but think of a theory
you may want to reinforce or challenge in your paper. This requires some perusal of the existing
scholarship on the topic so as to make reference to key authors and/or debates that your argument
may relate to. You must demonstrate an awareness of the complexity of the subject and how it fits
into the wider themes of the course. There is a long list of recommended scholarly materials in the
syllabus that may be useful.
All papers should begin with an introduction that clearly outlines the main puzzle/question and
argument of the paper, and the structure of the analysis to come. Think carefully about the structure
of paper to ensure that each part contributes in a logical way to your argument.
The main body of the paper should clearly illustrate the logical sequence and causal connections
between the various sections that drive your argument. In short, be clear about the transition
between sections. For example, “I have established the common challenges of development…I
will now explore how these challenges create criminogenic conditions, focusing on…”
The conclusion should briefly reiterate the major findings, particularly those that highlight what
has been accomplished in the paper.
Sources: Some of the issues you want to deal with may be quite recent while others may have
been going on for a long time. This means you will need to draw from a broad range of established
and emerging sources such as media and internet materials. However, your primary source must
be academic books and journal articles that have analyzed the issue from theoretical, historical,
and comparative perspectives. Internet sources and research reports may prove helpful insofar as
you do not depend on them alone and you weave each one with other materials to detect and
remove potential biases. In other words, be sure to assess the credibility and reliability of on-line
sources.
Format: You may structure your paper by using the headings and subheadings you prefer but be
sure the sections and paragraphs flow logically as stated. Also, it is appropriate to use graphs,
maps, and tables as long as they support your argument and are integrated into your analysis.
You must consistently use a recognized citation style in your references and bibliography. If you
need help about citation styles, consult the Scott Library
http://researchguides.library.yorku.ca/c.php?g=679413&p=4789824
Writing mechanics: The paper must be well written so that it is easy to follow, with no/few
grammatical, spelling, and typographical errors.

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