In what ways can democracy reduce corruption? Use examples from at least two countries or a region.

In what ways does the democracy reduce the corruption
in the democratising countries?
In what ways can democracy reduce corruption? Use examples from at least two countries or a region.
Introduction
Literature review on democracy and corruption

  1. Transition and Consolidation paradigm
  2. Democracy and corruption
    Case study on 2 countries
  3. India and Singapore
  4. Stage of democratisation in Singapore and India referring by using the latest global
    democracy indices – Democracy Index 2020 by The Economist Intelligence Unit
    (EIU), Freedom in the World 2020 by Freedom House, and 2020 Index of
    Economic Freedom by The Heritage Foundation.
  5. Achievement of anti-corruption reform in Singapore and India
  6. Implication for relationship between democracy and corruption
    Conclusion
    The rational behind choosing this 2 country is india being a largest democracy with more
    political openens than econmic opnesness but singapore with less political openess and more
    economic openness
    In india the inequality is at its peak both in terms of economic and social life because of
    caste & religion factor which complety shape the indian politics away from the real
    issues like corruption and economy , paying bribe in india has become a culture deeply
    rooted . and indian election system where corporate donors plays an important role to
    fund political parties and its not transparent over here.
    Singapore on other hand has strong anti corruption agency which has been deeply
    rooted in their system and back in singapore they value citizens over political theories or
    systems and they pay high salaries to civil servants and politicians with par with private
    companies thus showing the clean nature. And single party system also helps them to
    maintain this record unlike india where it is multiparty state with free and fair elections
    In case of india we can mention about governments steps for anti corrption policy like
    RTI ACT 2005 , Lokpal bill and other institutions like CBI , vigilant officers but still
    corruption cannot be eliminated due to low pay jobs for civil servants comapred to
    private jobs and civil servants are treated as regulators instead of facilitators
    Literature review on democracy and corruption:
    https://lancengym.medium.com/lee-kuan-yew-on-beating-corruption-f0b740d80ca5
    https://fcpablog.com/2019/02/18/how-are-indias-anti-corruption-efforts-really-measuringup/
    https://casi.sas.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/upiasi/India%20-%20Democracy%20and%20
    Corruption.pdf
    . Each of these scandals involves bribery charges related to allocation of publicly owned or
    regulated resources to favoured private firms, or to government contracts in the cases of the
    Commonwealth Games and the arms-imports. The combination of RTI and a vigilant opposition,
    media and NGOs, is making it increasingly difficult to hide major corruption for long. The
    likelihood of exposure at some time in the future might have a quiet deterrent effect on corrupt
    politicians and bureaucrats.

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