Example of Case Study:
n our week 5 discussion, the researchers have difficulty finding a large sampling group with knowledge and expertise about nursing and history. Because of this, they begin by using the Snowball method. When the researchers obtain data where they can use statistics to understand results, this is a quantitative approach. When they must ask questions to identify themes, this is qualitative research.
The snowball method is used when a researcher may have difficulty finding participants from a specific group to use in a study. Once the researcher finds one, that one participant provides names of others like themselves and the researchers include those people in the study. This is why they call it the snowball method. With snowball sampling, we must be aware of bias. In this week’s discussion, the researcher spoke with white nurses, eventually black, and then it appears there may have been biased when they discuss the segregated nurses and hospitals. The researchers may have discovered this when they reviewed the data. In the researcher’s investigation, they identified that some of the responses came from one person, and then another person identified down the hallway from the original. If the investigators identified they received responses from one group in one building, another group in another building, and so on, they could have broken these out into nominal data where they used zip codes or building codes. When we discuss the term “dichotomous” we mean two. An example of this could be white and black or male and female. 1. When the researchers specifically investigate the past nursing implications to determine future implications to facilitate future nursing, this is Purposive Sampling. It is called Purposive because the researchers pick individuals for sampling with a purpose. In this case, they want to speak with nurses who have been in the industry for quite some time and can discuss history. If they are identifying the participants because of their expertise in a subject, this is referred to as Expert Sampling. In this case, the experts are Nurses with experience and expertise as nurses. The researchers purchased contact information from the Florida Nursing Association for phase 2. Our book says that the list represents an adequate sampling of the Florida nurses. The researchers used randomized and quota sampling in phase 3. Quota sampling is conducted by selecting a small sample from a larger group that has the same characteristics. Randomization is done to mitigate bias. The researchers started with a sample size of 481 from phase 2. In phase 3, the researchers only had money to conduct telephone surveys with 100 participants. To get rid of researcher bias again, the researchers used computerized randomization. They divided the group of 100 into four piles by ethnicity responses and each person (in consecutive order) was given a randomized computer-generated number. The participants in this portion of the survey (3) were asked questions that were generated from the answers provided in the phase 2 data. The reason the researchers wanted to do this was to determine if the sample data of 3 matched the phase 2 data. If data from both match or confirm each other, they will have ` Based on the researcher's amount of money they have to conduct the phase 3 portion of the research; they have determined the size of 100 they study. Their considerations must include how they will conduct the survey, how much data entry is necessary, and how they will analyze the data. The data they collect in the 3rd phase is considered primary data because it is collected from a new set of questions by the researchers developed with information, they learned from the 2nd phase. They already collected probability samples and they already used random and quota sampling. Because phase 3 includes only 100 participants and this is a small portion of a larger group (Quota) this is considered a Non-Probability Sample. 2. The researchers need to have specific questions established with questions on a sheet so that the researchers all ask the question in an identical manner. They can ask study candidates to rank certain questions on a scale between 1-10 when they are trying to identify satisfaction, with 1 being lowest satisfaction and 10 being highest. This will provide the researchers with numerical data they can apply statistical analysis to. If they want to identify themes, they could ask a candidate to elaborate on the answers if they are high or low. This is a portion of qualitative research which may answer the statistical data. Since there are 3 researchers, they can save money if they divide the 100 candidates up and call 33 each. This will leave a single candidate for one of the researchers to contact. By doing the call surveys in this manner, they also provide consistent questioning with less variance than if they hired a survey call team. Each caller should record each call so that they can review tape recordings with other surveyors together when identifying themes. The tape recordings should be matched with every candidate as a number versus a candidate’s name. Although the book example states that the candidates were pulled and divided into four groups by ethnicity and were randomized by consecutive numbers, the researchers should not receive their group of calls by ethnic background. They should receive 1-33, 34-67, 68-100. Because the numbers were placed in the group randomly, this is the best method to distribute a group and reduce any potential bias. After the researchers collect data, have the data entered into an analysis program such as SPSS, they meet again to review numerical results, compare them with any themeiqus, and develop their findings