When was the Border Patrol created? What law did it enforce? Where did it focus its efforts?

  1. Before the late 1800s, the US did not have border enforcement or formal migration
    restrictions and only ships were checked. However, that changed.What laws were passed in
    1882 and 1924?
    Answer:
  2. How did racist political organizing lead to the passage of these laws?
    Answer:
  3. When was the Border Patrol created? What law did it enforce? Where did it focus its
    efforts?
    Answer:
    4.What was the Bracero Program?
    Answer: The bracero Program
    a. What were employers’ obligations to immigrant workers through the Bracero Program?
    Answer:
    b. What were the actual experiences of Mexican workers in the Bracero Program?
    Answer:
  4. Vitale states that historically, immigration enforcement has “been primarily about the
    production of whiteness and economic inequality (2017: 178). How does immigration
    Q&A’s
    enforcement a) produce whiteness and b) make immigrants into a uniquely exploitable
    group of people?
    Answer:
  5. Vitale argues that the Border Patrol operates through racial profiling. What evidence does
    he provide to support this claim?
    Answer:
  6. How did immigration enforcement expand under the Clinton Administration? Under the
    Bush Administration?
    Answer:
  7. What is the difference between the (both dehumanizing) phrases “catch and release” and
    “capture and hold” in terms of immigration enforcement policy?
    Answer:
  8. What was Operation Streamline? How many people were prosecuted through this
    operation? How much money was spent, and where did most of that money go? How
    effective has the program been in reducing or deterring immigration? How did Operation
    Streamline change Federal Court practices?
    Answer:
    Q&A’s
  9. How many unauthorized immigrants (we’ll use this term instead of “illegal immigrants”)
    are incarcerated in the US?
    Answer:
    a) What two types of facilities are they incarcerated in?
    Answer:
    b) What’s the relationship between the expansion of the private prison industry and
    immigration policy?
    Answer:
  10. Describe the conditions that immigrant families and children endure while incarcerated.
    Answer:
  11. What are 287(g) agreements?
    Answer:
    a. How do these agreements blur the lines between civil & criminal enforcement?
    Answer:
    b. Why do some local law enforcement agencies and local governments refuse to enter
    these agreements?
    Answer:
  12. Describe ICE’s Fugitive Operation’s Team, which is ostensibly charged with finding
    immigrants who have committed serious crimes.
    Answer:
    a. Who does this team target and how?
    Answer:
    Q&A’s
    b. Which groups of immigrants comprise the majority of their arrests?
    Answer:
  13. How does ICE’s Worksite Enforcement Unit operate? How many employers did they
    prosecute?
    Answer:
  14. How have border militarization and the criminalization of immigration made immigration
    more dangerous? What terrains do people cross now, as opposed to in the past? Who must
    immigrants increasingly depend on in order to immigrate?
    Answer:
  15. What happens to people who are deported and to their families? What about people
    who are sent back to Central America?
    Answer:
  16. Are Border Patrol officers held accountable for criminal misconduct? Why or why not?
    Provide examples from the chapter.
    Answer:
  17. Would a border wall deter immigration? Explain why or why not.
    Answer:
    Reforms
    Q&A’s
  18. Would a new guest worker program (like the old Bracero Program) improve conditions
    for immigrants? Why or why not?
    Answer:
  19. What should unions be doing differently, according to Vitale?
    Answer:
  20. What are the benefits or shortcomings of police reforms like hiring translators and
    building connections with local immigrant communities, according to Vitale?
    Answer:
    Alternatives
  21. Instead of continuing NAFTA, which is destroying corn agriculture in Mexico and leading
    to emigration, what does Vitale say would be a better policy?
    Answer:
  22. Describe the characteristics of your ideal U.S. immigration policy. (Note points of
    similarity or difference from Vitale’s recommendations.)
    Answer:
  23. Consider your family’s own experience with immigration. How does this lived experience
    inform your policy recommendations?
    Answer:

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