Reflection paper


The sociologist such as Grusky (2001) describes Social mobility as the movement of people, household, families and other within or between social strata. Moreover, it is also described as a change of the social status of a given society that is relative to other’s social region within a particular community. Therefore, according to the sociologist as an individual’s social status changes as a result of social mobility, the society may or may not find the importance of taking advantage of the social changes. Thus, the purposes of this reflection are to provide a progressive of the social mobility taking into account the various aspects that occurred in the United States of America.

Race and gender issues

In the course of 20th century, a lot happened in the United States that affected the social mobility in the communities. One of the factors that affected mobility in the region is the race factor. The race and status achievement as a determinant to the success and promotion in the areas of upward mobility has been a societal factor. For example, the fact of being a white would mean that they would do what they have to perform and succeed while the blacks have an added qualification to be more ambitious and self-reliant since their performance and successes have a less impact on how well they perform. This factor has affected the upward mobility of the blacks in the United States during this period. Moreover, there is the aspect of gender in the society. During this period gender was a determinant of success and role in the community. In the workplace, women were often hired and placed in low-level jobs and would receive low wages than the men in the same position. According to the sociologist, the situation would take place despite the same level of education for the men and women.

Differences in self-definition and Expectations

The social mobility in the United States was experienced due to self-evaluation and expectation levels. According to Day & Fiske (2013), states that the society where individuals are likely to believe that social mobility is being limited or constrained have a higher social mobility that the societies where individuals believe that their societies have a reasonable opportunity for upward social mobility. This declares the importance of creating social change for the people in the society. Therefore, the knowledge and skills on the factors of social change have affected the social mobility in terms of income generation and expansion. The Americans have to problematize something on the social change for promote the change of the issue. Moreover, the level of knowledge of the Americans at that time would have affected the level of social change.

According to Day & Fiske (2013), the united states of America have a very low social mobility. It is stated that the Americans rose at the top and bottom of the social class are likely to stay in the same manner despite the factors implemented.  The same is the case of the adults moving up and down in accordance with the income family ladder. According to Joseph Ferrie of Northwestern University, Catherine Massey of the University of Michigan and Jonathan Rothbaum of the U.S stated that as unlike the past studies which mainly compared parents and children, it adds the situation to the grandparents and great-grandparents to show how fixed the fortunes of many Americans have become.


Day, M. V., & Fiske, S. T. (2013). Movin’ on up? How perceptions of social mobility affect our willingness to defend the system. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(3), 267-274.

Ferrie, J., Massey, C., & Rothbaum, J. (2016). Do Grandparents and Great-Grandparents Matter? Multigenerational Mobility in the US, 1910-2013 (No. w22635). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Grusky, D. B. (2001). Social stratification: Class, race, and gender in sociological perspective.              

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