Update the global burden of disease due to cervical cancer using appropriate metrics. The data shown in the cases study is from 2002

MPH MCH Course: Assessment Task One.

Post-Course written assignment

Read the attached case study “Multi-Pronged Attack on Cervical Cancer Detection Seeks to Speed Detection and Treatment in Resource-Constrained Countries.

Answer the following questions. There are 8 questions and a total of 25 marks are available for this assignment. Marks allocated to each question are clearly shown in parentheses. Recommended time to complete the assignment is 3 hours. Answer each question in not more than 100-150 words. Unnecessarily long answers will be penalized. Use Font size 11. Do not type outside the boxes provided. Do not cut and paste. Adjusted the provided space after each question to fit your answer.

When you have completed all the questions, save the file using a name that includes your first name and student ID number and then upload it through BlackBoard©

Please upload your completed assignment by 0900 on Sunday 25 Feb 2018.

Update the global burden of disease due to cervical cancer using appropriate metrics. The data shown in the cases study is from 2002. (4 marks)   Answer: Globally, according to research cervical cancer is one of the most common diseases in female. It was ranked the fourth most common cancer among females in 2012. There were an estimated 528 000 new cases of cervical cancer, of which around 85% occurred in less developed regions. Around 266 000 females died of cervical cancer, accounting for 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. The treatment of the disease requires more funds that the the majority of the people in the developing nations cannot pay and therefore the donars has to come in and support the situation. The world heath organization and other NGO has spend a lot of money to control the disease. About 87% of cervical cancer deaths 1 occurred in the less developed regions(Torre, et al, 2015). Reference Torre, L. A., Bray, F., Siegel, R. L., Ferlay, J., Lortet‐Tieulent, J., & Jemal, A. (2015). Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 65(2), 87-108. http://www.cervicalscreening.gov.hk/english/sr/files/sr_statistics_cc.pdf    
What is the “gold standard” cervical screening method in high resource settings? (3 marks)   Answer: Pap Smear It is a diagnostic test that uses to identify the presence of cancer cells in cervical region.  The obstetrics-gynecologist, and researchers, many of whom are very comfortable with Pap smear Testing in urban settings, may see Pap and subsequent diagnosis As gold standard medicine and may, in fact, make a living from cytology.  
What alternatives are there in low-resource settings? (3 marks)   Answer:   Visual inspection methods with acetic acid, which is known as VIAHPV DNA Test (low-cost HPV)The cytology technique(pap)  
How were these alternatives evaluated and what advantages are mentioned? (3 marks)   Answer: Evaluation: These tests were evaluated through the ACCP studies comparing a number of screening techniques.Advantages: The cervical cancer screening using the VIA could be done in remote and less equipped clinics. The VIA provides immedidiate results making the possibility to screen and treat at the same time.  
What were the requirements for the use of the new HPV-DNA test and how were these addressed? (3 marks)   Answer: The requirements for using this test are reagents that do not require refrigeration. Rechargabel battery and DNA specimen from the patients.In the year 2007, PATH inaugurated a follow-up project to the START known as the START-UP system.
List three conditions for the effective use of new cervical screening technologies. (3 marks)   Answer: A strong leadership forum by international health organizations and multilateral agencies to ensure that low-resource counties are following the right guidelinesHaving continuous financial and political support for effective vaccination of young women and screening and treatment of older womenPartnership of different medical associations to spread the access of this test widely  
List three challenges faced by the three “initiatives” described in this case study. (3 marks)   Answer: In the beginning of the ACCP, there wasn’t that much attention to the combined work of the alliance because the groups in the alliance were working together because they share the same goal which is prevention of cervical cancer, and not because they were motivated to work in a single, strong alliance.In the initiative of START program, one of the problems was that many medical personnel were used to doing Pap smear and they haven’t tried/seen the alternative testing modalities, which makes them suspicious about the new modalities.In CCA, one of the challenges was expensive private sector price of HPV vaccination.  
This case study was written in 2009. Provide an update for 2016. (3 marks)   Answer: According to the WHO, in mid 2016 more than 65 nations had introduced the HPV vaccines. This is very prevalent in the developing nations. However, it is used in almost all the nations including the middle class nations. Therefore, based on this reports it is expected that the rate of cervical cancer to reduce by 30% in the next four years (World Health Organization, 2016). Reference World Health Organization. (2016). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Acesso em, 20.  

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