1. Author and the Poem Chosen

The chosen poem is Gone by Propertius.

  1. Tone

 Gone is a love poem which takes the reader through the sad story of the narrator’s life, who has just lost a lover. A bitter tone is evident when the poet says, “ O can I see her leaning on another, Who was mine, who was mine, so late?” the anguish and bitterness that results from the mere imagination of his lover leaning on another man is evidently too much to bear. (Latin Literature page 237)

  • Shifts in Mood

A shift in the tone of the poem is evident in the eighth line, “Then I could say ‘You are mine’ to her aloud … But love’s king of yesterday becomes by fate, Tomorrow’s Fool. That is the way of love.” The poet displays acceptance of the fact that he has lost the one he loves. He finds solace in drawing references from the reality of love on earth, by referring to the way of love as tomorrows fool.

  • Level  of language

Propertius employs the use of casual language in his poem. The poet communicates in a manner that is easy to comprehend and relate to. The author chose words that are simple and easily understood.

  • Paradox

Paradoxes refer to statements which contradict themselves (Dirges, 2003). For instance, the lineTruth mixed with lies, an endless hum of speech, “in the poem” Rumor” byA. E. Watts (1954), is self-contradictory. Truth cannot be mixed with lies.

  •  Metaphor

Metaphors entail making a comparison of two completely different things. In addition, these comparisons are implied. For instance in My Muse was mute and wrote no elegy,” in the poem “When Ovid Was Young” by John Gower, there is a comparison between two different things, the muse, and the poet’s lover, which have no relation whatsoever

  •  Simile

Similes involve the making of comparisons of dissimilar things using words such as like, as, than, and, resembles (Yeibo, 2012). For instance, in the poem, “All Things Change,” The time itself continually is fleeting like a brook.” (Page 243 of Latin Literature)

  • Personification

Personification entails giving animals, ideas or objects human attributes. For instance, in the poem, “The Ages of Mankind” byOvid, the author gives the trumpet the ability to produce to elicit human traits such as anger and produce and angry sound. “No walls were yet, nor fence, nor moat, nor mound; 244 nor drum was heard, nor trumpet’s angry sound.”(Page 244 of Latin Literature)

  •  Imagery

Imagery refers to the creation of vivid images in the reader’s mind by use of sensory language. It also involves the use of words that represent sounds, smells, and, taste to promote sensory experience to readers (Yeibo, 2012).  Imagery can be seen in the poem“The One-Eyed Giant Polyphemus Proposes to the Sea-Nymph Galatea” by Ovid who describes the setting in a manner that creates a vivid mind in the reader’s mind.” My garden filled with fruits you may behold and grapes in clusters, imitating gold…” (Page 246 0f Latin Literature)

  •  Repetition

The repetition refers to repeating words, lines, stanzas, or phrases to put more emphasis on a particular idea (Dirges, 2003). For instance, in Ovid’s poem, “Gone,” the poet repeats the phrase “has left me.” The use of repetition puts emphasis on the pain and desperation the poet suffers from losing the girl he loves.

  1. Hyperbole

Hyperboles are a mere exaggeration which is meant to intensify situations. For instance, in the poem “Advice to women” by Ovid, the author exaggerates in the statement, “This care that makes the barren earth Produce the ripened grain.” (Page 262 of Latin literature)

  1.  Irony

The irony is a stylistic device in which events unfold contrary to the expectations of the readers in the text. In the poem “Gone, “by Propertius. It is rather ironical that the poet displays a hopeful tone, even despite his sad situation, after being left by the lover. (Page 237 of Latin Literature)

 13 Ambiguities

Ambiguity refers to situations in which a statement has two or more interpretations (Dirges, 2003). For instance, in the poem “Rumor” byOvid, the reader is uncertain of who the pronoun her refers to in the text. Whether it refers to the earth, the sky, or, the sea. “Where three worlds meet, there lays a central space, of earth and sky and sea the meeting-place; her chosen fastness, with no portals closed.”(Page 253 of Latin Literature)


Dirges, B. (2003). Stylistic Patterns in Oral Literature: The Form and Structure Of. Nordic      Journal of African Studies12(3), 387-406.

Yeibo, E. (2012). Figurative Language and Stylistic Function in JP Clark-Bekederemo’s           Poetry. Journal of Language Teaching & Research3(1).

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