Case study: Sensory system

Question 1: Explain the physiology of low back pain

Moreover, Dural lining that surrounds the spinal nerve root is also a perfect example of the back pain involved with the acute disk herniation. This results to the pain from the spinal nerve root compression, arthritic spurs at degenerated facet and uncovertebral joints. Apart from the intervertebral disc being the cause of low back pain, it can also originate from the heavy lifting of materials that are beyond resistance of the lumbar spine, another source of pain is the treatment of pain requires a multifunctional approach because pain is very complex. The first detection of the low back pain must be directed towards finding out whether a severe neurologic condition exists which can follow up with medication (Gore, Sadosky, Stacey & Leslie, 2012). There are also alternative treatment of the conditions apart from the existing medication process.

Question 3: Discuss the pharmacological actions and effects of NSAIDS for Sue’s condition

The Low back pain is a well-known and common conditions that are rampant in clinical practice and medications are mostly used kind of treatment. In most patients, the pain is non-specific meaning that it cannot be attributed to a particular condition or any sign of abnormality present in the back. Various medications are available for treating the non-specific low back pains (Balagué, Mannion, Pellisé & Cedraschi, 2012). The most frequent used medications are the use of over the counter drug (OTC) painkillers such as calcium supplement, Vitamin D, and levothyroxine sodium. However, there has been some incidence of continued back pain that would consider the prescription for a higher medication and various researchers for more medical evaluation (Hayden, Van Tulder, Malmivaara & Koes, 2005). Therefore, in case of failure of the previous painkillers the patient will proceed to the NSAID which are described as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, Codeine or narcotics can also be prescribed for the individual for a short period but it would require a doctor’s supervision (Koes, Van Tulder & Thomas, 2006).

Therefore, based on Sue case being prescribed to be taking the NSAID medication, some effects are expected. The primary intention of the medication is to relieve Sue of the pain occurs. It also reduces inflammation by decreasing the level of prostaglandin which is mediators of the inflammatory cascades (Morone, Greco & Weiner, 2008). However, some side effects come as a result of the application of NSAID. These are the cases of upper abdominal discomfort, ulceration, erosion, and hemorrhage may also arise without warning symptoms. Moreover, there are other effects that might develop without any significance notice.

References

 Bogduk, N. (2009). On the definitions and physiology of back pain, referred pain, and radicular pain. Pain, 147(1-2-3), 17-19.

Balagué, F., Mannion, A. F., Pellisé, F., & Cedraschi, C. (2012). Non-specific low back pain. The Lancet, 379(9814), 482-491.

Gore, M., Sadosky, A., Stacey, B. R., Tai, K. S., & Leslie, D. (2012). The burden of chronic low back pain: clinical comorbidities, treatment patterns, and health care costs in usual care settings. Spine, 37(11), E668-E677.

Hayden, J., Van Tulder, M. W., Malmivaara, A., & Koes, B. W. (2005). Exercise therapy for treatment of non‐specific low back pain. The Cochrane Library.

Krismer, M., & Van Tulder, M. (2007). Low back pain (non-specific). Best practice & research clinical rheumatology, 21(1), 77-91.

Koes, B. W., Van Tulder, M. W., & Thomas, S. (2006). Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 332(7555), 1430.

Koes, B. W., van Tulder, M., Lin, C. W. C., Macedo, L. G., McAuley, J., & Maher, C. (2010). An updated overview of clinical guidelines for the management of non-specific low back pain in primary care. European Spine Journal, 19(12), 2075-2094.

Morone, N. E., Greco, C. M., & Weiner, D. K. (2008). Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study. Pain, 134(3), 310-319.

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