The macro level problem within a community

Community resistance problem

It is imperative that even with certain changes that can benefit a group; the group may not always accept the changes fully. This will be followed by a massive resistance and people refusing to corporate with the social worker. Basically, it is due to long-term habits, tradition or sometimes resistance to change even if it is for the ultimate good for the larger structure. According to scholars, sometimes it is human nature to resist any change despite its beneficial component attached to its arrival. People have a tendency to resist change whether because of emotional, cognitive or sometimes psychological reasons (Moyer & Mustafa, 2013). The macro-level social workers always find this to be a frustrating component of their work.

It is the role and duty of the people to work together with a social worker in order to implement change for the benefit of the community. Resistance is one problem that can affect the operation of a social set-up. In this kind of a set-up, a social worker would come up with initiatives such as plans and objectives but the community will not be in support of the entire process leading to issues for change implementation. This results in retardation in the development of any social welfare within a group (Fuioaga & Rusu, 2015).

Summary of a Peer-reviewed literature

Community resistance to a peer education programme in Zimbabwe

The article is about a community perception of a state of art on an education program in Zimbabwe Africa (Campbell, at el, 2014). The intervention succeeded in increasing HIV knowledge among the men and condom acceptability in women and reduced HIV incidence and rates of unprotected sex who had attended the education forum but did not succeed in the reduction of the population level HIV incidence (Joint United Nations Programme, 2017). Therefore, to understand the disappointing situation a study was conducted for the local perspective of the intervention. It was found that there was various resistance that came from the community leading to the objectives of the intervention failing. The community has the power to affect the progress of a program either positively or negatively.

Based on this intervention, the commercial sex workers and a part of the community could not understand the weight of the message and went on with their normal practices. The study was based on change influence of the people who attended the training session to training the others forming the chain of interaction for the entire community. However, according to result, the outcome could not be achieved due to much resistance from the people. The plan was if the people who attended the program could change they can educate other people but if they don’t change, people will not listen to their words since they are not accompanied by good and moral behaviors. The study wanted to reach the society through the trained members who have acquired the knowledge since it was impossible to reach out to the entire community at once. The success of the intervention depended massively on community reaction and response to the initiative.

Theories and Literature within the article

The literature was supported by various theories. Pawson and Tilley’s concept of realistic evaluation that advised the program evaluators to pay attention to both features of the program that is being implemented and the context in which the program occurs in order to understand the outcomes. Pawson and Tilley are very sceptical of the basic traditional methods that ask the questions ‘Does this works or what works’ but instead encourages the researchers to ask the question ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances due to a highly different effect of interventions on various individuals and also different contexts.

The approach understands the health behavior not as a result of the individual behavioral decisions but also as a response based on the contexts which people live in. The theory advocates for the interventions not only to persuade individuals to change their behavior but also to seek to reframe the contexts in which the people make choices, examines the extent to which various interventions enable individuals to change through building a better environment. Therefore, it is imperative that some choices that people make in the society may have an effect on the implementation of an intervention.  

David Mosse theory on rethinking an evaluation research was also used in the literature. It assisted the implementers to move away from evaluation approaches that place the onus of success or failure on the beliefs and behaviors of the target community with disappointing outcomes explained by factors such as lack of political leaders support, local culture and also technical issues. The theory assisted the implementers to focus on the program more widely especially on the aspect that was able to generate a social environment that supported the relevance of enhancing a social behavior change. Therefore, from the theory, it is important to understand the aspect of change or resistance experienced by the community.

Practice skills and strategies

There are various strategies that can be implemented to change the resistance that comes from the community as far as the initiative is concerned. The strategies are related to the community resistance problem. First, the programmed pressure on commercial sex women (CSW) resulted in stigma and the separation of this group from the society. This resulted in an opposing force from the community due to segregation hence the failure of the initiative. The CWS refused to the initiative of using the Condoms for the practice of protected sex aimed at controlling HIV/AIDs prevalence in the selected community (Who & Unicef, 2013). Secondly, the literature used the strategy of using the educators within the society who have the knowledge to assist in spreading the message to other people in the community as a process known as a change to change initiative. It was vivid that the educators received the message but refused to change their behaviour. The action of the educators that is contrary to what they are speaking is related to the community resistance. The practice related to social change reforms are compacted to the move experienced in the literature.

However, there are various strategies that are explored in addressing the problems in the literature. First, the article uses a dialogue mechanism from the educators and the society to address their disappointments. Secondly, the articles use theory-based approach to display the level of the problems associated with commitment of the people to the study.  These strategies are evident at the beginning of the study during the theoretical evaluation process. For example, the people trained who are expected to influence the society positively with their knowledge becomes another issue based on negative result realized in the process. This issue is displayed through a theoretical analysis and evaluation.

Holistic plan to address the problem

Community resistance is a problem for the implementation of any progressive approach or social change for the society. Therefore, a progressive plan is needed to address the resistance problem. The first strategy is to have committed educators who are ready to change in terms of behaviour in order to pass the change to the rest of the society (Kuiper at all, 2014). The training will be carried out to all the attendees. The second strategy will be selection method that will be based on moral principles. It is evident that the study was unable to meet its objectives because of the educators who were unable who was speaking what they were not living in their natural life. They were doing the opposite of what they were saying. Third, using the strangers from other communities in carrying out the social change will be an effective strategy (Jalagat, 2016). The strangers will be new to the people within the selected community hence it will be easy to enact the social change process in preventing the prevalence of HIV/AIDs.

Using foreigners in the social change operation in the community will be the best strategy to be implemented. The people within the selected area are very sensitive to the behaviour and life of the educators. It is very challenging to use an individual they know based on behaviour change process according to the theories. Therefore, using the foreigners in the operation will be the best move since the people are not aware of their other life back in their community. This will reduce the resistance level from the community especially because of social behaviour from the educator (Noguera, Cammarota & Ginwright, 2013).


Campbell, C., Scott, K., Mupambireyi, Z., Nhamo, M., Nyamukapa, C., Skovdal, M., & Gregson, S. (2014). Community resistance to a peer education programme in Zimbabwe. BMC health services research, 14(1), 574.

Fuioaga, C. P., & Rusu, C. (2015, October). RESEARCH ON RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AS AN OBSTACLE IN THE CHANGES IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIAN COMPANIES. In International Conference on Management and Industrial Engineering (No. 7, p. 142). Niculescu Publishing House.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (2017). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS, 2013. According to the UNAIDS’estimate, the number of new infections in the region increased from, 21, 22-000.

Jalagat, R. (2016). The Impact of Change and Change Management in Achieving Corporate Goals and Objectives: Organizational Perspective. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(11), 1233-1239.

Moyer, C. A., & Mustafa, A. (2013). Drivers and deterrents of facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reproductive health, 10(1), 40.

Noguera, P., Cammarota, J., & Ginwright, S. (2013). Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America’s youth. Routledge.

Kuipers, B. S., Higgs, M., Kickert, W., Tummers, L., Grandia, J., & Van der Voet, J. (2014). The management of change in public organizations: A literature review. Public administration, 92(1), 1-20.

Who, U., & Unicef. (2013). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS, 3-5.

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