Question 4

Question 4

Through the class reading and discussion, I have learned important facts in regards to the articles we read and also discussed in class. For instance, in the article ‘’Myths of objectivism and subjectivism’’ by Lakoff and Johnson, I have learned that subjectivism reliance on objectivity is rather impersonal and fact-oriented. It also important that through the use of myth or rather metaphor which can bring together logic, reason in regards to objectivity and imaginations in regards to subjectivity. The myth of objectivism is more on the western culture, especially in the western philosophy. This myth strengthens our innate capacity to reason to provide us with the knowledge of the things as they exist. Thus, with this, I learned that having a strong innate capacity is essential for effective thinking and reasoning. On the article ‘’No scientist an Island’’ by Hudson I learned that no scientist is self-sufficient and that everyone must rely on other people in one way or another. Therefore, any scientist has to use information from other scientists to build up his or her information.

Moreover, in the article ‘’Racists arguments and IQ’’ by Gould, I learned that racism had created assumptions on the issue of human intelligence measure. There exist some scientist who claims that people of color are inferior compared to their counterparts the white people. For instance, the race has influence researchers ability to express and have a clear conclusion. Most researchers quantify data in regards and favor of their race. For example, one researcher found that the German brains on average weighed about 100 grams more than the one from France. It was also clear that the researcher was a German. Therefore, it is imperative that the race factor influences most of the result from human intelligence researcher. It is essential to know more about the background of research.

Question 5

Assimilation/Accommodation Conceptual map

Schemas illustrate that both mental and physical tasks which are included in the understanding. These are kinds of knowledge that assist people to interpret and knowns the whole world. According to Piaget’s view, a schema involves both a part of knowledge as well as the process of acquiring the knowledge. In the occurrence of experience, the assimilation is applied to change, add to or shift the past existing schema.

The assimilation; the process of acquiring new information to our past existing schemas are in light with new information which is known as accommodation. The section has two parts such as task problem and schema activation. The accommodation includes changing the schemas or notions as a result of the new information or rather an experience. In the conceptual map, the accommodation part is represented by two tasks such as schema modification and mental model. The schema modification is then directed to the accretion then to tuning while a mental model is represented by reorganization and then to tuning.

It is imperative that all children tend to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation which is achieved by an aspect known as equilibrium. In the application part of the conceptual map, as children develop and move through phases of cognition, it is significant to maintain a balance in using the past knowledge called assimilation and changing to account the new knowledge known as accommodation. The equilibrium assists to illustrate how children are capable of moving through the phases.


Gould, S. J. (1974). Racist arguments and IQ. Natural History, 83(5), 24-29.

Hudson, L. (1972). The cult of the fact: A psychologist’s autobiographical critique of his discipline. Harper & Row.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). The myths of objectivism and subjectivism. Metaphors we live by, 185-194.

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