Theoretical foundations of organizational change


Change is an important aspect exercised in an organization to increase performance as it works towards its ideal state. Due to the constant change in the market, an organization has to undergo a lot of change. Even though everyone is aware of the fact that people must live with change, there is always constant resistance when change happens. To find a solution to change resistance issue, an organization needs to plan on how to adopt the change. One of the most significant factors is change management, and the success of a business is evaluated based on its ability to manage the changes (Cummings & Worley, 2014). The paper will address the factors that influence change management, models and various interventions of managing change and leadership relevant to enable change and how to make a decision on the most appropriate scheduling of change.

Factors contributing to the organic evolution of change

There exist various factors that drive the process of change in an organization. Some of the factors that contribute to change are internal while others are external. It is important to note that the evolution of change in an organization depends on factors such as process advancement, a desire for change, competition and technology among many others. In addition, these factors are also known as the triggers for change.

Process advancements; most processes that are effective today may not be efficient in the future. Firms want to operate using the most effective operations to minimize the cost of managing a business and increase on profits. Thus, an organization will continuously change to advance processes as a means of minimizing the cost of operation while adding value to employees and shareholders (Kasemsap, 2017). The stakeholders must be in a position to understand the value of the change before making a decision to support the process. Moreover, the managers and leaders will also desire to improve concerning quality to attract more clients.

A desire for change; at want point, an organization will desire to grow and develop. It is evident that the growth cannot be attained if the organization has the same system and methods due to resistance to a change process. However, this can be attributed to lack of a drive for change. For instance, in case an individual wants to drive a change, he or she has to develop a desire for change. Therefore, change must happen and in good time to make sure that the desired growth is accomplished.

Technology; It is known to be one of the primary factors that drive the process of change. Since technology occurs at a firster rate, organizations have to identify the ways of coping. It assists organizations to be more efficient and minimize the cost of managing a business (Kasemsap, 2017). Besides, it can aid to attain growth strategy of an organization. For instance, a changing technology drive an organization to follow suit to cope with new technology hence fostering change process.

Competition; It is known to be one of the external forces that drive organizational change. It affects aspects like pricing and customer knowledge within an organization. The managers and leaders must to research the possible ways to cope with rampant competition or risk being driven out of the market. An intense competition in the market forces an organization to develop new ways to survive.

Models and interventions of change leadership

Organic changes need a systematic approach to development and should consider aspects such as cultures, capabilities, business models and organizational constraints that majors on short and long-term growth. The purpose for this is because a change in micro-level is to reflect on the personal experience. The leaders must be careful when choosing a model to make sure that it is effective. The commonly used framework for change is an eight-step process that was developed by Kotter. The first step or phase of the model involves creating urgency for change (Cummings & Worley, 2014). There exists a moment where urgency is required to introduce change in an organization, but there are also some moments when change is required, but there is no urgency.

The second step is team formation to assist manage the organization through. When the change has to be done for the entire firm, it is essential to have agents from all departments including relevant stakeholders. In addition, the team chosen to handle the change will come up with a strategy and plan to attain the change. Then, project members will share the plan to the firm and set measures that will ensure that all the relevant personnel is working towards achieving the primary objective (Kasemsap, 2017). That said, the wins achieved are released publicly for everyone to see to motivate the team for a major change. In making the change, the team will work with the role of consolidating the change with the existing culture in an organization.

Leadership and management skills

Sometimes change can be difficult. To begin with, there exist a number of reasons as to why people tend to oppose change. However, an appropriate methodology to change will aid to minimize objection and foster success. Managers and leaders are expected to give followers the reason for supporting the change process and has to compromise with the followers. Moreover, it is evident that for an organization to improve, it is vital to have leadership guided by vision. The leaders with a clear vision will be able to see where change is needs and attract others to join the course (Hayes, 2014). They will persuade people easily in regards to the elements for change and motivate them to implement the change. Besides, to make sure that change will be a continuous process, it is important to train people and mentor them adequately. This will give the followers the courage because the organization has their interest at heart hence less resistance to the change process.

Most efficacious timing of a change

There is always a driving force whenever there is a change in an organization. For a successful change, there must be a time factor. There are moments when a change will come to an organization but fails to have an impact because of time. Thus, the timing of change is important. For instance, when bringing in new technology, it is important to understand that technology is changing at an alarming rate (Hayes, 2014). Therefore, a leader will determine the existing trends in technology and decide on the anticipated changes. 

In case the change agents determine the need for a change, there must be evidence to support the idea. It is important to have a piece of supporting evidence and data to confirm that effectiveness of the change to the organization. The information and data assist the person enforcing the change to understand what they are required to do in such a scenario (Hayes, 2014). Similarly, it will assist the stakeholders to learn the importance of making the change. Therefore, the information or data will assist to give the need of knowing the urgency required for making the change.


There exist factors that must be considered when making a change in an organization. These factors can be classified as internal and external. However, even with the involvement of these factors, the rate of success is what matters the most. Thus, managers and leaders of the organization will find out the success or failure of the required change. The process will involve researching to gather relevant information that can be used to convince other team members to support the idea of change. The change proposal should be guided by evidence and data collected and relevant to the change process. In addition, there will be a need to create a scenario where change will be a continuous process.


Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage

Hayes, J. (2014). Theory and practice of change management, Palgrave Macmillan. New York Google Scholar.learning. Kasemsap, K. (2017). The roles of organizational change management and resistance to change in the modern business world. In Organizational Culture and Behavior: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 1034-1062). IGI Global.