Stone Age States and Cultural Homogeneity

Question one

 The time period when the earliest human beings lived was known as Stone Age period. This period was solely characterized by use of stone tools and weapons. This time period has been given different starting and endings depending on where someone is in this world. Generally, this period is dated back from about 30,000 BCE to 3000 BCE (Pargeter, 2011). This time period spans a very large period of human history and scholars have broken it into three distinct periods so as to study it as a whole. These periods are early, middle and late Stone Age periods. Scholars have in recent years come up with another subdivision of Stone Age period known as experimental developer stage (Deacon & Deacon, 1999).

The three periods occurred at different times and pose a lot of differences between them. The early stage, normally referred to as paleolithic stage is dated between 30,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. This marks the longest of all periods. This period is characterized by rudimentary tools and weapons. The humans at this age used to chip stones, bones or antlers with other stones to make sharp edges to use for spear for hunting (Pargeter, 2011). The paleolithic human lived a nomadic live, they moved from one place to another and lived in non-permanent structures. They used to hunt and gather food and mostly lived in caves. While this was the case with the early stage, the middle stage was short and not so drastic (Deacon & Deacon, 1999). The Mesolithic period as it is referred, started from 10,000BCE to 8,000 BCE. Age, the humans started settling as there was change in climate. The climate moved from ice age to a warmer period. Due to this climate change at this stage, the humans ceased relying on hunting and gathering and begun the art of agriculture. Ploughing of land, planting and harvesting commenced at this stage (Pargeter, 2011).

The last stage, which is referred to as the Neolithic age saw the beginning of human civilization. Although paleolithic stage was the beginning of humanity, the late stage was the refinement of humanity. Generally, this stage kicked up from 8,000 to 3000 BCE (Steger, 2017). This stage saw organized settlements of humans. It is at this stage that social organizations and political organizations were formed (Pargeter, 2011). Nations and governments were formed and boundaries set. This period was largely important for the future of humanity. Experimental developer state is the current state of human evolution. This state came with the development of technology and industrialization (Deacon & Deacon, 1999).

Question two

These four stages have similarities between them. The culture presented by these states is recurring. The developmental divergence in human cultural history was consistent throughout these four states (Pargeter, 2011). In most parts of the world, especially the temperate and woodland environments, the early stage traditions of life were basically readapted on the way to more or less progressively deepened levels of food gathering (Pargeter, 2011). These versions of older food measures to the variety and sequence of post-Pleistocene environment are generally mentioned to be going on in the Mesolithic period.

According to this, progression in history presented all through these states, it is evidenced by two developmental patterns: the preadaptation of culture to post-Pleistocene environments on a more or less intensified level of food collection and also the development of an effective level of food production. The appearance and development were attained in an independent manner through the various states at different localities (Steger, 2017). Use of stone crafted materials such as spear and axes were significant all through. Emergence of iron smiths improved the works at this time as people shifted their craftsmanship (Pargeter, 2011). Gathering and hunting happened throughout the early state, middle state and late state although it was not significant in the developer experimental state. It is within this matrix of search for food and food production that any type of the civilization of the world was realized (Weiss, Otcherednoy & Wiśniewski, 2017).

Question three

Globalization and homogeneity have been greatly influenced by western world – ideals, values and culture (Steger, 2017). Taking an example of American fast food, it is evident that this industry is not only taking over the more and more parts of American society but also those around the world (Steger, 2017). As fast food industries in the whole world are adopting the same standards of health, health has become a major concern for consumers worldwide. According to this it is evident that people become united through a common brand rather than national belonging. The more people consume and use the same brand; they become connected despite of distance. Although people are far from each other closeness and a sense of global community is felt built on brand cultures rather than cultural diversity (Deacon & Deacon, 1999).

 However, arguing that the world can be completely homogenized into a single global village is too deterministic due to some limitations. The fast foods restaurants are not identical in the whole world. Acknowledging the existence of powerful homogenizing tendencies in the world is one thing and asserting the diverse cultures in the world is another thing (Steger, 2017). All in all, globalization is not all about sameness but also differences. Although the world has strong homogenizing inclinations, that does not imply the final extinction to diversification (Steger, 2017).

 Finally, it is vital to know that the idea of complete homogenization means there is a one-way flow from the West to the rest of the world. Also, it fails to identify that people have action and control over our deeds. Generally, there is a complex collaboration of homogenizing global tendencies in tension with cultural diversity. One does not necessarily mean the end of another.

                                                                           References

Deacon, H. J., & Deacon, J. (1999). Human beginnings in South Africa: Uncovering the secrets of the Stone Age. Rowman Altamira.

Pargeter, J. (2011). Interpretative tools for studying Stone Age hunting technologies: experimental archaeology, microfracture analyses and morphometric techniques (Doctoral dissertation).

Steger, M. B. (2017). Globalization: A very short introduction (Vol. 86). Oxford University Press.

Weiss, M., Otcherednoy, A., & Wiśniewski, A. (2017). Using multivariate techniques to assess the effects of raw material, flaking behavior and tool manufacture on assemblage variability: An example from the late Middle Paleolithic of the European Plain. Journal of Archaeological Science, 87, 73-94.