Wraparound programming in juvenile justice


Wraparound is a holistic method that involves in engaging the individuals with complex needs so that they can live in their homes and communities to realize their dreams and hopes. The program has been used in the juvenile system for solving the problem in the society where the juveniles are placed in hostile places without anything constructive for effective transformation of the Juveniles. The values of Wraparound as shown in its core principles are fully consistent with the system of cares framework that involved the corporation from the society especially the family members and school. The process has transformed so many juveniles allowing them to stay at home as further analysis and follow-ups are made on their behavior (Scott & Eber, 2003). The program has handled various issues such as gang involvement, drug addictions, family canceling and involvement, mental health and others. Therefore, the paper will define wraparound and describe its applications in the juvenile justice. 

The Wraparound programming has handled victims from some criminal cases in the society. Some of the juveniles were involved in gang, drug addiction and abuse, and female offenders such as teen pregnancy. Most of the juvenile offenders have been subjected to hostile conditions despite their involvement in crimes that can be rectified. According to specialized of wraparound, most of the juveniles are subjected to non-constructive treatments that make them more violent. Therefore, based on extensive research, some of the juveniles can be rehabilitated and make them more responsible in the society. It has been observed that the police prisons does not make the juveniles responsible but transforms them into more and dangerous criminals once they have finished their term in prison. Therefore, the wraparound allows the juveniles to be released to their homes while watching their transformation. These are achieved through collaborative efforts such as from community outreach, and family involvements. The process has made a continuous rehabilitation effort by tackling some cases involving individuals with mental problems. The wraparound believes that the society is very close to the solution of every problem which is effective in a collaborative manner.

The wraparound separates itself from other services which existed in the society such as the traditional services delivery in appropriate education and a cognitive health issues with its determination in improving family relationships, community partners, and schools in the effective problem-solving relationship (Walker & Schutte, 2004). The very distinct implementation features are first, family and the voice from the youths to guide a design and activities of the teams. Secondly, the team compositions and plan reflects on a strength that is originates from youth and family strength. Third, the team creates a process based on commitment and capacity to the design and implementation of comprehensive strategies over time, and finally, the plan describes the various results across home, community and learning institutions through a single synchronized plan.

However, outwardly wraparound can be confused to be a kind of special need education or a cognitive health treatment process, but it goes much beyond as it dictates a substantial effort on building a significant relationship and comprehensive support connectivity among the youths and the victims and the family members. This is achieved by creating a comprehensive team among each and every student plus the family of the students that is invested in obtaining an agreed on the quality based on life indicators. It is vivid that the process requires comprehensive team support for achieving the objective by having a system of connections that is objected to having an equivalent survey system. The team includes wraparound professional members, the family of the victims, the school teachers where the Juvenile attends and others from the community (Walker & Schutte, 2004).

The aspect of wraparound has been operated in a number of events.  The lack of a theoretical framework has led to the absence of consistency based on the procedural policies that exist to control the wraparound process. Consequently, the two theories that are mostly used in the process are the ecological system and environmental ecology theory. The theories compliments on the influence of various systems on the degree of performing for the juveniles and their family members. The theories are based on focused on families and strength-based of wraparound. The primary goal of the process is a success for the youths based on the aspect of their families and the juvenile home schools. These characteristics are the facts that make wraparound distinct, family and community-focused process that is often apprehended as an experienced as antithetical to the existing traditional cognitive health treatment planning process.

The process requires some procedures to create ownership and thus investments of the individual who spend much time with the students. This establishes a situation in which a range of interventions such as behavioral support which are executed through integrity. Moreover, other requirements for a successful process are effective parenting and family dynamics, efficient communication process and other factors. The effectiveness of communication is required for understanding the level of progress during the family meetings discussions. The teams meetings depend so much on communication to allow others understand and analyze how the students are faring based on interpersonal relationships and friends based communications. The communication aspect enabled the team to recognize various factors such as violence and arrogance. This is usually administered by asking some questions and also analyzing how the students react to some disagreements that he or she may encounter in the society (Walker & Schutte, 2004).

Source of funding

Wraparound is founded by one funding source which is Medicaid. However, Medicaid may be limited regarding its possibility to serve the children and the communities that the community identifies. It is unique funding source with a lot of regulatory services (Walker & Schutte, 2004). Therefore, the community stakeholders require understanding the eligibilities, regulations and the priority population mandates with the Medicaid. For example, not all the Medicaid –eligible beneficiaries benefit from other systems such as juvenile, justice or schools. Therefore, it is needed that the society supports the programs.


The wraparound process dictates a particular role for team members incapacitating the natural surveys individuals and the detailed conditions for various interventions which involve specifics role for each of the individuals will play on particular situations. The functions of a designed team facilitators are vital to ensure the aspects of wraparound is adhered to and that the characteristics of the strength-based individual approach that are used. A wraparound coordinator who is normally a school social worker or psychologist coordinates the members through various phases of the wraparound by ensuring commitments. The process has a distinct process that is facilitated to ensure and reduce the increasing number of rising crimes from the juveniles. The process has transformed many Juveniles in the society by taking them away from the soliciting prisons that only make them more arrogant. The process uses both the society and family members in the transformation process that ends up being a progressive system.


Scott, T., & Eber, L. (2003). Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples. Journal of Positive Behavior Supports, 5, 131–143.

Walker, J. S., & Schutte, K. M. (2004). Practice and process in wraparound teamwork.Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12, 182–192.


Using the Hays ADDRESSING Model

Question 1

I have privileges in almost all the areas except for the areas of disability of the developmental type. I will make an access to the areas where the privilege could be a hindrance to the progress. I have privilege in various ethnic groups in the society. However, it is very interesting working with my fellow people of color  (Hays, 2008).

Areas I have privileges

  • Disability(Acquired) e.g I will not understand how disabled people feel
  • Age e.g am not aware of how people above 40 years feel
  • Gender e.g I don’t understand how male feel in some situations

Areas without previleges

  • Ethnicity and racial identity e.g Iam aware of the effects of race
  • Socio-economic status e.g I have been through both states like low and middle class
  • Religion and spiritual identity e.g in understand both the religion as well as pagan life

Question 2

It is important that our cultures, most of the non-whites are treated unfairly. Indeed, this can make me biased in order to revenge the cause to the other ethnic group (Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007). Teaching cause has taught me to be unbiased and to work with all groups in the society. However, this has been a challenge especially when I see the whites mistreating the people of color (Dakai, 2003).

Question 3

This will affect my teaching profession as I will favor the people of color and show contempt to the contemporary group.  The state of biasness will affect the delivery process as African American people would find an easy access based on support (Smith, 2004).


Dakai, S.H. (2003). Addiction Counseling: Examination of various Addiction Counseling and Therapy Approaches. Journal of Addictive Disorders. Retrieved from

Hays, P. A. (2008). Addressing cultural complexities in practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Smith, T. B. (Ed.). (2004). Practicing multiculturalism: Affirming diversity in counseling and psychology. Allyn and Bacon.

Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate behavioral research, 42(1), 185-227.


To Reflect On and Evaluate My Writing Process

Subject: To Reflect On and Evaluate My Writing Process

I personally believe that it is significant for a student who would like to do achieve the best in their class to create a moment for evaluating their performance to show the rate at which their writing is going on and on the ways they can continue to improve their writing skills. Therefore, when I check the unit that we have completed, I asked myself questions such as ‘what have learned? What I still needed to learn on the aspect of writing?’ in order to improve and enhance my writing process. Therefore, responding to the questions will assist me with the step of the self-evaluation, and also develop a layout to understand the new skills and techniques.

Therefore, during my learning period, I have improved my writing technique through a number of processes. I have always tried new techniques in writing, learning on the purpose, acquiring new techniques of fighting writer’s block through my tutors and classmates responses. One of my writings during the unit was on the essays which I wrote later in the class. I was overwhelmed by the technicality of the topic of the essay which was limited to experience based on the diverse writing techniques. However, in most cases, I have attempted using both listing and outlining process to make the essay writing easy. In reality, I have never used the technique before which benefited. I believe that I had a more success with the listings techniques which I used to classify and divide the essay. I believe that assisted me to stay on topic and maintain my writing plan. Moreover, I used an outline process to assist me in writing work in relation to compare and contrast which was equally helpful to the organization of the process. However, I learned that the process was more complicated than the lifting techniques.

In my writing course, I had challenges with a writer’s block system quite often. I have learned the techniques to have some breaks while writing to assist alleviate the symbols of writer’s block. Moreover, I learned to take a paper for writing down the ideas while fresh in my mind. Writing down my thoughts has assisted me to shun the writer’s block since I have a number of thoughts on the subjects before I start writing. I realized that have minimal challenges on writing, it improves my writing by reducing my stress which can be noticed through my writing material. I was significantly affected by writer’s block while tending to write both argumentative piece of work and description which caused me much stress and also leads to a more challenging concept. According to research, stress has the ability to affect a cognitive reason which originates due to an individual assimilating to fail. However, the writing plan reduced the stress level and my writing improved substantially.

Though my writing techniques and skills have made some good progress during the learning process, I still have some important things that I really need to teach to assist me to keep improving my writing skills. I need to learn more about grammar to improve my writing quality ability. Moreover, I also require an active voice, and building the rewrite skills to continue improves the writing process. Thus, in my final analysis, my writing skills have greatly improved significantly and having checked on the areas which I need to work on has created an awareness of the areas of my weaknesses. Examination of what I have learned and what I require allows me to generate the strategies in the fortification of my writing skills. A self-evaluation is a tool for any individual who may want to continue to learn and improve by making progress.

Rhetorical Analysis Proposal


The macro level problem within a community

Community resistance problem

It is imperative that even with certain changes that can benefit a group; the group may not always accept the changes fully. This will be followed by a massive resistance and people refusing to corporate with the social worker. Basically, it is due to long-term habits, tradition or sometimes resistance to change even if it is for the ultimate good for the larger structure. According to scholars, sometimes it is human nature to resist any change despite its beneficial component attached to its arrival. People have a tendency to resist change whether because of emotional, cognitive or sometimes psychological reasons (Moyer & Mustafa, 2013). The macro-level social workers always find this to be a frustrating component of their work.

It is the role and duty of the people to work together with a social worker in order to implement change for the benefit of the community. Resistance is one problem that can affect the operation of a social set-up. In this kind of a set-up, a social worker would come up with initiatives such as plans and objectives but the community will not be in support of the entire process leading to issues for change implementation. This results in retardation in the development of any social welfare within a group (Fuioaga & Rusu, 2015).

Summary of a Peer-reviewed literature

Community resistance to a peer education programme in Zimbabwe

The article is about a community perception of a state of art on an education program in Zimbabwe Africa (Campbell, at el, 2014). The intervention succeeded in increasing HIV knowledge among the men and condom acceptability in women and reduced HIV incidence and rates of unprotected sex who had attended the education forum but did not succeed in the reduction of the population level HIV incidence (Joint United Nations Programme, 2017). Therefore, to understand the disappointing situation a study was conducted for the local perspective of the intervention. It was found that there was various resistance that came from the community leading to the objectives of the intervention failing. The community has the power to affect the progress of a program either positively or negatively.

Based on this intervention, the commercial sex workers and a part of the community could not understand the weight of the message and went on with their normal practices. The study was based on change influence of the people who attended the training session to training the others forming the chain of interaction for the entire community. However, according to result, the outcome could not be achieved due to much resistance from the people. The plan was if the people who attended the program could change they can educate other people but if they don’t change, people will not listen to their words since they are not accompanied by good and moral behaviors. The study wanted to reach the society through the trained members who have acquired the knowledge since it was impossible to reach out to the entire community at once. The success of the intervention depended massively on community reaction and response to the initiative.

Theories and Literature within the article

The literature was supported by various theories. Pawson and Tilley’s concept of realistic evaluation that advised the program evaluators to pay attention to both features of the program that is being implemented and the context in which the program occurs in order to understand the outcomes. Pawson and Tilley are very sceptical of the basic traditional methods that ask the questions ‘Does this works or what works’ but instead encourages the researchers to ask the question ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances due to a highly different effect of interventions on various individuals and also different contexts.

The approach understands the health behavior not as a result of the individual behavioral decisions but also as a response based on the contexts which people live in. The theory advocates for the interventions not only to persuade individuals to change their behavior but also to seek to reframe the contexts in which the people make choices, examines the extent to which various interventions enable individuals to change through building a better environment. Therefore, it is imperative that some choices that people make in the society may have an effect on the implementation of an intervention.  

David Mosse theory on rethinking an evaluation research was also used in the literature. It assisted the implementers to move away from evaluation approaches that place the onus of success or failure on the beliefs and behaviors of the target community with disappointing outcomes explained by factors such as lack of political leaders support, local culture and also technical issues. The theory assisted the implementers to focus on the program more widely especially on the aspect that was able to generate a social environment that supported the relevance of enhancing a social behavior change. Therefore, from the theory, it is important to understand the aspect of change or resistance experienced by the community.

Practice skills and strategies

There are various strategies that can be implemented to change the resistance that comes from the community as far as the initiative is concerned. The strategies are related to the community resistance problem. First, the programmed pressure on commercial sex women (CSW) resulted in stigma and the separation of this group from the society. This resulted in an opposing force from the community due to segregation hence the failure of the initiative. The CWS refused to the initiative of using the Condoms for the practice of protected sex aimed at controlling HIV/AIDs prevalence in the selected community (Who & Unicef, 2013). Secondly, the literature used the strategy of using the educators within the society who have the knowledge to assist in spreading the message to other people in the community as a process known as a change to change initiative. It was vivid that the educators received the message but refused to change their behaviour. The action of the educators that is contrary to what they are speaking is related to the community resistance. The practice related to social change reforms are compacted to the move experienced in the literature.

However, there are various strategies that are explored in addressing the problems in the literature. First, the article uses a dialogue mechanism from the educators and the society to address their disappointments. Secondly, the articles use theory-based approach to display the level of the problems associated with commitment of the people to the study.  These strategies are evident at the beginning of the study during the theoretical evaluation process. For example, the people trained who are expected to influence the society positively with their knowledge becomes another issue based on negative result realized in the process. This issue is displayed through a theoretical analysis and evaluation.

Holistic plan to address the problem

Community resistance is a problem for the implementation of any progressive approach or social change for the society. Therefore, a progressive plan is needed to address the resistance problem. The first strategy is to have committed educators who are ready to change in terms of behaviour in order to pass the change to the rest of the society (Kuiper at all, 2014). The training will be carried out to all the attendees. The second strategy will be selection method that will be based on moral principles. It is evident that the study was unable to meet its objectives because of the educators who were unable who was speaking what they were not living in their natural life. They were doing the opposite of what they were saying. Third, using the strangers from other communities in carrying out the social change will be an effective strategy (Jalagat, 2016). The strangers will be new to the people within the selected community hence it will be easy to enact the social change process in preventing the prevalence of HIV/AIDs.

Using foreigners in the social change operation in the community will be the best strategy to be implemented. The people within the selected area are very sensitive to the behaviour and life of the educators. It is very challenging to use an individual they know based on behaviour change process according to the theories. Therefore, using the foreigners in the operation will be the best move since the people are not aware of their other life back in their community. This will reduce the resistance level from the community especially because of social behaviour from the educator (Noguera, Cammarota & Ginwright, 2013).


Campbell, C., Scott, K., Mupambireyi, Z., Nhamo, M., Nyamukapa, C., Skovdal, M., & Gregson, S. (2014). Community resistance to a peer education programme in Zimbabwe. BMC health services research, 14(1), 574.

Fuioaga, C. P., & Rusu, C. (2015, October). RESEARCH ON RESISTANCE TO CHANGE AS AN OBSTACLE IN THE CHANGES IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIAN COMPANIES. In International Conference on Management and Industrial Engineering (No. 7, p. 142). Niculescu Publishing House.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (2017). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS, 2013. According to the UNAIDS’estimate, the number of new infections in the region increased from, 21, 22-000.

Jalagat, R. (2016). The Impact of Change and Change Management in Achieving Corporate Goals and Objectives: Organizational Perspective. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(11), 1233-1239.

Moyer, C. A., & Mustafa, A. (2013). Drivers and deterrents of facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reproductive health, 10(1), 40.

Noguera, P., Cammarota, J., & Ginwright, S. (2013). Beyond resistance! Youth activism and community change: New democratic possibilities for practice and policy for America’s youth. Routledge.

Kuipers, B. S., Higgs, M., Kickert, W., Tummers, L., Grandia, J., & Van der Voet, J. (2014). The management of change in public organizations: A literature review. Public administration, 92(1), 1-20.

Who, U., & Unicef. (2013). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. Geneva: UNAIDS, 3-5.


The Dram shop act cases

Dram shop act

The acts allow the statutory provisions such as the bars, restaurants and liquor stores to be liable for selling or serving alcohol to the persons who end up causing death or injuries. I personally don’t agree with the aspect of transferring the liabilities to the third party based on the negligence of another individual. I think the act is biased and should be adjusted to make it more clearly compared to its current state. The actions should be redirected to the situation of excessive drinking from the same location since in such cases blame can be laid upon the owners of the bar, restaurants and the liquor stores. The main purpose of the law is to prevent drunken driving accidents which are a good cause to the society. Moreover, the law tends to discourage the bar owners from selling intoxicating liquors to the visible intoxicated individuals and minors. However, it is very hard to identify intoxicated individuals without a machine to detect the level of intoxication and this becomes a point of contradiction.

For example, the case of Kirchner vs. Shooters on the water which involved the death of Kirchner in the Cuyahoga River next to the ‘Shooters’ has led to various discussions. Shooters’ is a restaurant bar and the men arrived at around 1:15. The entire group was not allowed through the main entrance since they were underage and they found other means through the back of the restaurant. Kirchner goes to take a piss off the doc and his friends actually observe him fall into the river due to the excessive drinking at the club that night. The toxicologist reported the blood alcohols level to be 24 which was found to be 3 times the legal limit to operate a vehicle in Ohio. Therefore, in this kind of case the Shooters had all morals to stop the group from entering the restaurant but through their own means, they found themselves inside without the knowledge of the owners. The group was served as adults and yet they were underage who illegally entered the restaurant. However, based on the dram shop act it is the restaurant that will be persecuted and yet they were not aware of how the victims entered. I think there are other means and methods that can be applied to control the number of deaths that come as a result of excessive drinking of intoxicating alcohols.

The stakeholders who are hurt by the dram shop act are the owners of the restaurants, bars and liquor stores. In most cases with absence of enough evidence to support the voluntary intoxication, the owners of the bars and restaurants always fall victims of circumstances. In the case of Kirchner and Shooter was ruled in the favor of the owner of the restaurant because of the issue of voluntary intoxication. Moreover, an individual becomes afraid of purchasing the drinks lowering the sales of the same alcohol drinks. The producers of intoxicating drinks are also hurt due to a reduction in the purchase ratio.

Basically, I think there should be a thorough investigation in the cases that require the application of dram shop act.  The issue of third-party liability stated in the case could be considered biased when not investigated well. Therefore, the laws barring the sale of intoxicating drinks to underage should be enforced but the owners of the bars and restaurants should not be persecuted for an intoxicated underage especially outside its premises.


The backpack as my favorite object

My Backpack

The value of an object is attached to the owner’s interests and also its price. The backpack is a kind of a bag that is used to Carry objects mostly school items such as books. It is vivid that the most of the backpack that student uses to carry books and other materials around the school. However, most of the students use the object only during the school and abandon them during the holidays. My case was very different based on the kind and value that is attached to the backpack. I remember my birthday when I was fresh in school my parents got me a nice backpack. However, I never thought that the backpack would mean anything to me since I had several others then later got torn and became useless.  The backpack good and I recalled I went for a window shopping just to check its price and it was full of the price. It purposes was more than just a nice bag to hold the heavy books and binders for the rest of education careers. Therefore, the object I value is my Backpack.

The day I received my backpack as a gift from my parents I remember how new and sparkling it was and looked. It was made from a unique material and very rare in the country of my residence. The material was about the price tag that it held. I wasn’t sure whether the price was real or not so I had to conform around the shopping malls in the city. There was something beyond what I saw about the backpack that I had in my possession. I don’t know why it was so different from others which I had in my possession before and then I thought it was due to the happiest moment of my life. Moreover, its unique structure reflects the kind of production process which the backpack went through to make it wonderful. It seems that its refinement was not by its outward look but on how it was intertwined. However, I realized later that my aunt who is a designer of backpacks designed it as a surprise gift for me through my parents. There was something distinct about it based on texture, color, and brand.

I always treat the backpack as a companion and a friend who is always around me all the time. During school, it is like a shadow to me based on its availability until it became an identity. I remember my friends identifying me as the one who usually carries a particular backpack on the back. However, the fun about it is that I never got embarrassed about being identified with the bag that I was carrying. People said many things about the backpack and I which was something different and never worried me a moment. I was so much in love with the backpack, and nothing could create a boundary line between us. It was fun walking around carrying my nice backpack with some of my materials inside. It is like a fashion that I embraced in the larger part of my life. However, my worry was on the fact that nothing on this earth can stay forever even the most powerful humankind has to die.

I was afraid at the moment on the fact that my Backpack would become weary and torn someday that I could no longer use and carry it as always. All through my education life, my backpack has provided shelter for my belongings with every moment of a downpour for my walk to lectures and also all the trips that I took to other regions and nations around. It walked with me through the historic streets which I visited as part of school trips or family occasion trips. Therefore, it was one, and none like it ever existed. However, presently my backpack is stretched out so much that it has begun to sag at the base and also along the zippers. Its color is still intense despite the fading that has become on its back and sides having some dirty stains in the entire crevasse. Moreover, it is also missing around three zippers and cannot withstand more time in the rain. Its texture and color are fading, and I thought of bringing it back to its original state. Therefore, I had to take back to my aunt for repairs and return it to its normal state.


The backpack is the object I value most currently in my life. This is based on facts such as its value, price and where it was produced reflecting its originality. The backpack has been around the globe and back with me as a close partner. Moreover, I have a perfect friend and more amazing memories while wearing it on my shoulder. Therefore, it is an amazing feature I have ever had in my entire life.  There was a strong connection that existed between us maybe because I love the process it underwent before its delivery.


Strategic International Business Management Report

Task 1 


Most businesses are likely to be affected by various factors with its environment globally. It has been with effective analysis and the study of this environment that assists most businesses to identify the factors that might hinder its operation globally (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2008). The present report is based on studying the various aspects of the international business environment for the expansion Lidl Company. The Company is a global supermarket chain that is based in Germany and seeking to expand its operation into various nations such as Mexico and Norway. There are diverse factors that exist within each and every country that is likely to attract or discourage foreign businesses. This report will analyze the international business environment of the two nations which represents the most potentially attractive target market using the Pestle analysis.

There are diverse factors within the international business environment that are most likely to affect the operation of Lidl Company in some regions. Therefore, this provides the need to understand the various factors that affect the operation of the kind of business in Mexico and Norway. The Lidl Company has been operating in more than 30 countries globally and thus it is important to make the analysis of factors such as political, social and other that might influence the operation in terms of the market. All the factors of international business environment can be understood with the evaluation of PESTLE analysis that in turn provides an insight to Lidl to make a choice on the nation with a favorable environment for the business (Yüksel, 2012).

Political factors

The political part gives an understanding of the political system and the key figures that are significant to the operations of the business in the country. The political system of Mexico is unstable with various economic problems such as poverty which is said to be caused by government operations. The tax rates vary widely with lack of structural adjustments policies from the government. Recently, the international monetary funds and the World Bank have designed structural adjustment policies for the Mexican government to encourage successful development (Held, McGrew, Goldblatt & Perraton, 2000).

 On the other hand, when analyzing the economic and political statistics of Norway, it is vivid that it stands at a better place compared to other nations in relation to the economic and political stability. Norway is a nation that best fulfills the demands of a prosperous life. It grants preferential tariff rates for the members of the European Free trade Association through either a membership or having a signatory (Dahlsrud, 2008). Therefore, it will be very easy and effective for the Lidl Company to expand its operation in Norway.

The Economic factors

These consist of factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns. Mexico is categorized by the World Bank as an upper-middle-income nation with a poverty spread of approximately 44% of the population living below the poverty lines (Yüksel, 2012). This is an indication that almost half of the population would prefer cheap products that would meet their level of income. Thus, it would be very challenging for international business like the Lidl Company to set a supermarket chain due to the existing market problems (Held, et al, 2000).

On the other hand, Norway is considered to have a stable economy based on various factors. The world economic forum listed Norway among the 15 most competitive economies globally during the 2008- 2009 (Yüksel, 2012). The nation scored high on factors such as protection of minority shareholders’ interests, the public trust of political, government surplus, for ease of access to loans and cooperation of labor employment relations. Therefore, a stable economic and the various achievement of Norway are effective for any operation of foreign investment. This is because the environment is conducive for business operation. 

The Social factors

The social part enables an understanding of the consumers’ demographic based on the income distribution, rural-urban segmentation, and educational scenario. Mexico has about 76% of the people with most of the Mexicans emigrate from the rural regions that lack job opportunities. Moreover, Mexico has great strides in the improvement of education and literacy rates over the last moments. On the other hand, Norway has a well-formalized education system with most people living in the urban regions (Yüksel, 2012). Most of Norwegians are educated and thus very easy to manage and reason in relation to business operations. The population of Norwegian is capable to support most of the markets for both international and local businesses.

Technological forces

Technological factors section provides strategic information on technological laws and policies, technological gaps, and patents within a given country. Based on the information by Scopus, Mexico is ranked at number 28 among countries in various publications. The country lags behind the many more technologically developed nations in terms of educational programs and research responses. However, there is much development in relation to technology with the advancement in technology (Held, et al, 2000). On the other hand, Norway has a significant wave of technological advancement since 1990 with the use of internet becoming common by the public. According to the social development committee, it is vivid that every third party in the nation is using the internet and hence an easy opportunity for advertising and online marketing for most businesses. Presently, more and more cafes, restaurants and bars have created their personal websites in order to give the first impression to their customers. The Norwegians are able to find any café through their portal and hence easier for any international business to gain entry and succeeds. The technological environment can allow the performance of any business due to the fact that it is easy to reach the customers and convince them through the internet. These are made effective with their knowledge on the use of various technological gadgets such as a computer to converse online. There is an advantage to the use of the portals or web pages as an advertisement platform.

The legal factors

The section provides information on the legal structure, tax regimes, and the laws to begin a new business in a given nation. The legal dimensions of the environment affect business practices. The significant laws that might affect business are like consumerism, employee relationships, competitive practices and the environment. A variety of the laws are associated with regulatory agencies such as powerful United States regulatory agencies, the environmental protection agencies, equal employment agencies and others (Held, et al, 2000). Either, Norway has a legal system that can be trusted with a better regulatory system such as in the Banking fields and have competent people on an egalitarian wage scale system. Therefore, the straightforward legal system is able to attract foreign investors in any line of business.

Therefore, from the analysis, it is significant that various factors existing within its environment. The PESTLE analysis provided an extensive overlook on various factors such as political, economic, technological, and legal factors for both Mexico and Norway. Thus, from the analysis, it is evident that Norway proves to be the best place for Lidl Company investment region.

Task 2

Market choice

According to the book ‘Exploring Corporate strategy,’ the environment is what provides business with a means to survive. It is true that satisfied clients are responsible for the survival of a business in an environment, but there are other important factors such as the market demands, Political stability, and shifts in technology, policies and other factors which can be a challenge for the organization. Therefore, it is important to analyze the external environment to foresee and make modifications. The macro environment is political, technological, social, environmental and legal that has an impact more or less on the organization (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2008).

Most of the businesses choose to expand their operations in foreign nations to seek for market opportunities beyond their countries boundaries. Therefore, it is important for a Company to evaluate the target market before entry to run from the risk of meeting the unexpected due to the un-conducive environment. Based on the evaluation carried out for the two markets; that is Norway and Mexico for the Lidl Company using PESTLE analysis, it was imperative that Norway had an effective environment for the Company to operate.

The Rationale for the Market choice

Based on the evaluation using the PESTLE analysis, it was imperative that Norway is best suit for Lidl Company.

Political factors

It is important for the Lidl Company to understand the political system of the target market. Therefore, based on the analysis Norway stands a better footing on political stability compared to other nations. This is evidence of the political satisfaction based on masses and stable promises for a greater success of any business. Moreover, the country is a member of European Free Trade Association which provides a suitable environment for any entry in relation to business. For example, it gives preferential tariff rates to European Economic Area (EEA) members. Therefore, this becomes an advantage for Lidl Company since it is based in German.

Economic factors

The economy of a nation is vital to the survival of any business. The purchasing power of the customers depends on the stability of the economy. According to World Economic Forum, Norway is listed 15th most competitive economy among 131 nations in the year 2008-2009 edition based on the global competitiveness Index (Yüksel, 2012). Norway scored more on matters such as ethical behavior, the venture of capital availability, labor-employer relationship, higher education and training and also dependence on professional management. Norway provides employment to approximately 2.5 million people which are able to provide a good market for any business since most of the people can afford to buy goods and services from Lidl Company. The Shopping chain is able to be sustained through the wide market provided by working-class Norwegian citizens.

It is evident that consumption rate for goods and services in Norway are increasing with the increasing economy. Most of the citizens have more money to spend on what they want as opposed to spending on what they need. Therefore, the environment is able to sustain the growth of any business.

Technological forces

Technology has been an integral part of the society since a number of operations are guided and controlled by the internet. Basically, information and communication technology is important for marketing operations which is imperative for the growth of the business. Therefore, Norway is more advanced in terms of technology as many people have the ability operate and browse the internet. The Norwegian are able to assess web-portals for the existing business. This is an important environment for a business such as Lidl Company in relation to reaching out to customers. Thus, with the help of technology Lidl Company can conduct online marketing in the bid to attract the customers. Moreover, Lidl Company is able to enforce easily systems such as online payment methods with the help of technology. Norwegian being conversant with technology, it will be very easy for the Company.

The Legal factors      

These factors include factors such as policies and laws from both the local and central government. According to various articles, Norway has a legal system that any business can trust for the operation. Therefore, the favorable environment in terms of legal basis is important for the establishment of Lidl Company. The regulatory system controls the operations of most businesses in the environment.

Task 3:

Competitive intensity of the industrial environment of Lidl in Norway

Norway supermarket industry information background

The industry is composed of the following Norway supermarkets; Coop Mega supermarket, Bunnpris discount supermarket, Coop marked, Coop Prix and other chain stores. The research on these supermarkets shows how established within the industry and their progressive success. The existence of supermarket is able to create a competitive intensity based on the line of products and services. Therefore, the competitive intensity of the industrial environment in Norway will be analyzed using the five force model to ascertain the validity of the market. The following are the five force model;

Bargaining power of the suppliers

Norway supermarket industry would not exist without suppliers for stocking their shelves in relation to the demands of the customers. Thus it is evident that the bargaining power of the suppliers in the market is a significant force to check, for example, when the bargaining power of the suppliers is high then it is able to make the industry un- attractive as the suppliers will have the power to push the price and gain control  of the supermarket power. According to Porter, suppliers are more powerful if they are only a few of them existing in the market. Supermarket industry has to operate in an environment with significant number of suppliers of goods and products for stocking in their premises. Therefore, it is vivid that the existence of more suppliers in Norway makes it conducive for Lidl Company and others to operate easily since they are able to make choice of the suppliers in the market. This means that Lidl Company is able to choose the suppliers based on the quality, price, and service which mean that the bargaining power of the suppliers is low. Basically, this makes it very easy for the maintenance of the company-suppliers relationship.

Bargaining power of buyers

In the analysis of Norway supermarket industry, the purchasers based on Porters five force model are the customers. There are thousands of customers all over Norway who are able to purchase the products in the market. Moreover, with a large number of customers in the market, the customers have no bargaining power making them subject to the business world. However, this does not make the customer loyal to any business in the products. The customers are able to shift from one supermarket to another based on the issue of quality, prices and after sale services.

It is vivid that most of the supermarket does offer the same line of products and goods in the market. This means that customers can still obtain the same products and goods in other supermarkets around. However, this does not affect the supermarket since Norway has a great number of customers who are able to purchase commodities in the supermarkets. Most of the supermarkets such as Cool Prix and cool marked are continuously conducting more advertisement to attract new customers and maintain the loyal customers. Therefore, to survive in the market, it is will be valid for Lidl Supermarket to perform major promotion activities and retain most of the loyal customers.

Threats of potential new entrants

It is imperative that any region where new businesses can easily gain entry to a given industry, the intensity of competitiveness among the companies increases. According to Porter, there are barriers to the entry on the supermarket industry. Porter claims that a region with low barriers to entry makes it more attractive for the investors hence more competition. Norway as a country is highly profitable making it more attractive making it easy for entry especially for the nations that are within Europe. Therefore, there is a high chance of more entry even after Lidl Company would have entered the market.

Threat of substitutes

The existence of substitution decreases the demand for a given types of products as clients are able to shift to other alternatives. In Norway supermarket industry, the existing supermarket is the others substitute hence the competition being fierce and constant since the products and goods offered are almost the same.

The extent of competitor rivalry

The rivalry between the firms is usually the most essential of the five competitive forces model. The competitive rivalry plays a significant role in Norway supermarket industry since all the supermarkets offer the same products and at the same time would want to achieve its objectives.

Task 4

Internal Business environment

Lidl Company is an international discount supermarket that is located in Germany. The Company is currently operating in major areas in Europe making it very challenging for other competing firms by making it difficult for small retail firms to enter. Moreover, it has approximately over 10,000 stores which are in the United Kingdom. Apart from being active in retail operations, the Company also deals with services such as DVD rentals and bakery services that were launched in 2009 and 2012 respectively. The performance of Lidl Company in Norway depends on the strength of internal environment which can be evaluated both based on resources and capabilities to enable success in the market. Therefore, in this part, the report will make use of the VRIO framework to analyze the internal environment within the Lidl Company.

VRIO framework

This is basically a tool that is used to analyze a firm’s internal resources and capabilities to find out if they can be a source sustainable competitive advantage within the market. The resources that a Company has can be grouped into intangible and tangible resources while capabilities which are made up of their financial strength and skills able to make the firm a competitive advantage. The following are the four VRIO frameworks;


The first question asks whether the resources of the Company add value by allowing the firm to exploit opportunities and at the same time defend the threats. The resources are considered valuable if they are able to improve the customer value perceived. Lidl Company has a skilled labor force that is capable of coming with distinctive skills and delivers value to the customers. Moreover, the company has a flexible system of operation and customer delivery system. For example, offering a delivery service for any customer to their virtual doorstep from any nation globally. This is supported by the technological advances that are present in the Company allowing for customers to make online orders and the goods will be delivered to their respective location. Additionally, the Company has a high level of excellence that is displayed on the layout and the structures of their stores. For example, the Company has wireless devices, electronic shelf labeling, self-checkout machines, and intelligent scale. This is accompanied by a corporative customer care services that are available physically and also online.


The resources of the Company are supposed to be rare. It is imperative that most supermarket offers the same line of products, but this a Company should think of various ways to make the products and other resources such as employees very different from the one that is in the society. Basically, this has been a major operation highly practiced by Lidl Company in most of the regions of operation. For example, Constant updates on their services to make the Company’s resources different based on a proper layout system that is able to attract the customers. The launch of bakery services in the year 2009 was an initiative to make their product different from the customers can find fresh bread and cakes made by the Company.

Costly to imitate or copy

A resource is considered costly to copy if other organization does not have the same resources. Lidl Company has embraced a level of technological systems that are costly for small firms and can only be achieved by large organizations of its caliber. It has trained staffs that are able to deliver value and make shifts on behalf of the Company in relation to various economic changes. The staffs have been motivated to the level that their desire is to work and deliver professionally. A successful business is one that has a well-coordinated staff to perform fully.

Organized to Capture Value

The resources are not able to be advantageous if they are not coordinated to capture value. The Lidl Company has its operation performed electronically such as a flow system at the cashier where a customer is able to serve faster without any errors. It has a strong display team who are skilled in designing and art. The team arranges the products professionally that creates value by attracting clients. Moreover, a strong customer services offering after sales are evident in major stores such as the ones in the United Kingdom. These are able to attract new customers and create value as well.  

Lidl Company VRIO Capability
Product design and layout operations
Valuable?Rare?Costly to Copy and imitate?Is the Company organized to exploit it?
Result: The company is able to sustain a competitive advantage

Task 5

Modes of entry into a foreign Market

A business has various entry modes to choose from during internationalization process. The section of the report focuses on the on the various types of foreign entry modes that Lidl Company has to choose from. From an extensive research, it is imperative that no entry mode is superior compared to the others, but instead, the Company’s status, objectives, and goals will be best suited for a given mode of entry. The Company’s resources and capabilities as internal factors and the external environment of the nations of entry are other significant considerations when making a choice to the foreign entry mode.

Most organization will have a number of reasons for entering the global market which will have an effect on the entry mode that is the best suite to the firms. It is important to determine the Company’s desired level of flexibility, presence commitment, and risks when entering the global market. There are various foreign entry modes exist such as licensing, exporting, franchising, wholly owned subsidiary and the joint venture. The section of the report will analyze these foreign entry modes in details.

Licensing entry mode

This is a cross-border agreement allowing various organizations in the target nation the right to utilize the property of the licensor. The properties are the trademarks, production techniques and patents. Licensing is chosen most of the times because of its low risk, low exposure to the political and economic conditions, and have a high return on the aspect of investments. On the other hand, it has various limitations such as it has the capability to reduce the potential profit of the ownership out righted, can nurture a potential competitor for the future and affects the brand image because of lack of control over the licensee.

Franchising mode of entry

Franchising is where an independent Company’s owner known as the franchisee pays fees and royalties to the franchiser to utilize a Company’s trademark and sell its products or services. The terms of the franchise package depend on the contract scheme such as operations, equipment, the management manual, staff training and approval of a location. However, it is important to consider the pros and cons despite its widely used international border entry. The most known pros of the mode of entry are the fact that it capitalizes on a strategy that is already successful, it has an understanding on the locals regions, it also a low risk and the franchisor is not exposed to the risks that are associated with the foreign market. However, it has some cons such as loss of brand image due to lack of full control,  not maximizing on the profit but instead receives royalty fees and not full and the possibility of building a competitor.

The joint venture mode of entry

The Company might choose to enter into a joint venture in order to divide the risks with other parties and also to use each other’s strength in taking the market. The Companies in the joint venture has to merge their objectives and able to learn from one another without sharing their competitive advantage. The advantage of using the entry is that the organization does not fall as the victims of the local government.

A wholly owned subsidiary mode of entry

This is where an organization decides to enter the foreign market on 100% ownership of the foreign entity. There are two ways that are Greenfield operations and acquisition. The Greenfield is where an organization creates a new organization and legal entry while the acquisition is where an organization purchases a foreign organization as a method of entering the new market. The mode has great benefit if implemented correctly due to a high control of the brand, high commitment, and a single objective. However, it has high risk compared to other modes of entry due to the possibility of getting restrictions from the local government.


I will recommend Lidl Company to use the wholly owned subsidiary mode of entry to Norway. This is because Norway gives preferential tariff rates to the European Economic Area especially to the members of the European free trade association. Moreover, Lidl Company has a strong internal management system that is capable to take the company through the new environment after gaining a significant knowledge on Norway.


Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: an analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, 15(1), 1-13.

Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D., & Perraton, J. (2000). Global Transformations: Politics, economics, and culture. In Politics at the Edge (pp. 14-28). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Johnson, G., Scholes, K., & Whittington, R. (2008). Exploring corporate strategy: text & cases. Pearson Education.

Yüksel, İ. (2012). Developing a multi-criteria decision making model for PESTEL analysis. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(24), 52.

Porter, M. E. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard business review, 86(1), 25-40.


Summaries of the articles

Brooklyn Neustaeter (2017/03/25) The Real Difference Between Men And Women When It Comes To Relationships.

The article addresses the concept of new technology in relation to dating which is all about the hook up and superficiality. The existence of online dating applications has allowed people to access and chat with partners making them shuns the real-life interactions. According to Rosenfeld, the increasing role of the apps such as Tinder has proved some aspects of importance by leading to about one of the four straight couples to have met through online dating. Therefore, the diverse measures about online dating have proved more useful compared to the traditional aspects which it has replaced. The technology has made hook up culture very easy especially to the individuals who fear one on one meeting. There have been a lot of safety issues that allow people to avoid the aspect of following each other around and thus making it easy. Moreover, online dating has improved the connectivity of diverse people who in most cases hook up and make up plans to start life. It is even easier to block people who disturb and move on with life as compared to the traditional ways which could be very difficult. However, it is imperative that online dating has led to the shift in a marital age in the United States of America. The marital age has shifted from the 20s to around 30s due to the new technology in dating styles.

AMANDA CHATEL (Feb 25 2015) The 11 Best Ways To Meet Someone In Real Life, Because Online Dating Really Isn’t The Only Option

The article by Amanda Chatel provides the best ways to meet someone in real life because online dating is not the only option. Some decades back, people were interacting in real life before the evolution of the online dating. Based on the analysis, it is vivid that the process really worked for them at that time. However, there are various ways to promote and enhance real-life interaction. First, never to skip work happy hours when invited by harmless colleague since it will promote a social cohesion. Secondly, it is important to check on the events your friends are attending through the Facebook to allow for a plan in attending the most appealing one among the events. Thirdly, it is imperative to be attending the friends birthdays parties to attract more friends and have fun which is an important element of life. Fourth, taking a public transportation to work since it is easier meeting new people compared to the private ones.

Consequently, the Fifth, it is important to volunteer your time for meeting people in the public places. Sixth, never to close your interaction with strangers since it will limit real life interactions. The seventh way is to get a dog since it will make it easy for someone to start talking about it and thus leading to a real-life conversation.  The eighth way is to consider taking the class since a class is a point of meeting new friends and interacting easily. The ninth aspect is to agree to be set up by other people in the society. Tenth, it is important to become a regular somewhere which will give the confidence to talk to people. Eleventh is to do more things alone.


The Dark Knights’ Returns Critique

The Dark Knight Returns provides an excellent opportunity to explore the allure of one of the vigilante heroes and also the notions of the antihero. The author uses some themes that are displayed through the characters presented in the story.  In the story, the author uses the theme of separation to describe the start of the story. At the beginning of ‘ Dark Knights returns,’ an individual or perhaps a reader learns that Batman has not been seen in 10 years and most of the citizens of Gotham suspects that he is either retired or dead. The reader soon realizes that Bruce Wayne has been repressing Batman deliberately for the past ten years; from the time he took a vow never to let Batman take control of the shared body gains (Brooker). However, the voice of Batman is not heard directly at the point in the tale; Bruce Wayne makes it vivid that he must apprehend. The essay will provide a critical analysis of the Dark Knights Return story.


The author presents the theme of conflict as the central theme in the world of the Dark Knight Returns revolve around escalating crime in Gotham city which forces the authority attempting to guides its operations. The authority should be practice a moral force and represents. The figures that are represented by the authority should be selfless and work only to enhance the integrity of law and order. Moreover, the authority of the novel by Miller is presented as an authoritative figure that is represented through the qualities of vigilante and also on the moral ambiguity.

Moreover, the first example of a figure that contradicts the moral and the skew of the authority prescribed as Ronald Reagan who is the president. In the story, Reagan is fed up with the movements of Batman which he considered as illegal actions. Therefore, in this line, the author presents the theme of conflict that is really between the authority and Batman based on the case of the movements that is presented as immoral actions. The reality is presented in the story as a point of separation that exists between the society and the authority. The character Batman contracts his moral status while at the same time fighting the mutant leaders in the society. However, in the bid of shooting him as he stops himself “though that means crossing a line I drew for myself thirty years ago” (Brooker).

In the story ‘The dark Knights return’ the author presents Batman as a vigilante hero. The author presents iconic naming of the characters such as Batman, Robin, Superman and the Joker. The author uses the theme of duality to present the role of the characters. Batman presented in the story returns from the retirement to fight crime in the society to seek justice. However, presents him as an individual who is not accepted in the society. The society views Batman as a joker who was awakened by the catastrophic state. Although Bruce Wayne self-control is strong, the desire of Batman for escape is also magnified in the story. Therefore, this becomes apparent to the readers about the halfway through the first story when the voice of Batman is heard for the first time which signals a shift in the battle for the control.

In the Novel, Batman has the power to maintain his moral views to take up the evil that exists in Gotham town and to make the decision despite the side of the law. The story presents vividly states that murder individual crosses the moral and the actions that are presented through Batman. The author presents the theme of the justice that is established through the moral concepts. The justice that is given is profound in the fact of the solution that is found to be profound in the case theme. The reality that is presented through the solution based on moral concepts. The ability to make the idea is presented through the solution of the base factor. Batman comes through his mission and character that makes him be viewed as an enemy of the authority figures. The author uses the reality of facts to make his way through the facts about the solution. The power is given through the morality and behavioral concepts.

Despite the fact of being unstoppable, Batman remains trapped inside the body that is controlled and guided by Bruce Wayne. Therefore, Miller likens Batman’s captivity so that an individual that is trapped inside the cell that is presented through a symbolic study that is presented on page 26 of the novel (Daniels). The story line and the symbolic nature of the case have viability that would confuse any readers based on the fact that people cannot have two realities. The events that are presented through the story are based on factual symbolism where Batman is represented in two persons. This may sound great reality in the reader’s mind due to the case of the situation for the facts about the situation that is not real. In the end, the possibility of the escape is realized in the final through which the flying bat crashes through the window symbolic freedom that Batman that has been failed attentions.

Moreover, it is clear that the author is seen to use the theme of conflict that is presented throughout the pact that is found in the case of reality. Most cases of conflict based on an authority having disputes with the local people especially the perceived Hero Batman. His case does not go fast on the situation. However, the reality of war is presented through one case as stated in the story. Batman having disagreements with the people is a show of irresponsibility. The locality of themes is real in the novel.


The author uses some themes that are displayed through the characters presented in the story.  In the story, the author uses the theme of separation to describe the start of the story. At the beginning of ‘ Dark Knights returns,’ an individual or perhaps a reader learns that Batman has not been seen in 10 years and most of the citizens of Gotham suspects that he is either retired or dead. Batman presented in the story returns from the retirement to fight crime in the society to seek justice. However, presents him as an individual who is not accepted in the society. The society views Batman as a joker who was awakened by the catastrophic state. Although Bruce Wayne self-control is strong, the desire of Batman for escape is also magnified in the story.

Work cited

Brooker, Will. Hunting the dark knight: Twenty-first century Batman. IB Tauris, 2012.

Daniels, Les. Batman-The Complete History: The Life and Times of the Dark Knight. Chronicle Books, 2004.


The Inner Voices of Socrates and Prince Arjuna

The most famous and well-known Athenian philosopher Socrates and the Prince Arjuna of the Hindu both share a unique character that defined their point of actions in life. Every person has an inner voice which we use to make ethical decisions in life. The moral values that guide life are both learned and instinctive. The main idea in the conversation between the Prince Arjuna and Socrates is about the aspect of conscience. Conscience is defined as the part of the mind that makes an individual aware of their actions as being either morally wrong or perhaps a feeling that something is morally right or wrong. Therefore, one could possibly argue that they talked to a strange voice in their head that controlled their respective paths through the enlightened inner conversation. Thus, the essay will compare an aspect of Krishna’s advice to Prince Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita Daimonion to Socrates’ while examining the philosopher’s interactions with the divine messengers. It also addresses how an individual ought to act based on the philosophical texts.

Despite the similarities, Socrates and Krishna had a number of differences. Socrates believed in individualism while Krishna believed in collectivism. Socrates was being guided by Daimonion a principle of being control by an inner being while Prince Arjuna was being guided by Krishna. Therefore, according to Socrates an individual should think and act for themselves and also draw their own conclusions through the inner mentor. Moreover, Socrates also believed that a wise person takes responsibilities for their actions. On the other hand, Krishna believed in the aspect of determination and not in free will in contradiction to Socrates. Moreover, Krishna believed that a wise person does not take responsibility for the actions but instead separates himself from the consequences. For example, Krishna tells Prince Arjuna to enter battle without thinking about the consequences that might arise after the battle. Additionally, Krishna has a strong belief that one should be concerned with the outcome of an action but only on the aspect of the action.

Krishna gave Prince Arjuna the moral freedom to choose what he felt was right by asking him to find his inner self. This provides the mirror for the yogic philosophies and beliefs about Prince Arjuna requires in making a choice on the right path without any bias from the advisor. Based on the conversation, I believe that Krishna’s advice is just wise since it allowed Prince Arjuna to pick the path he saw was fit. Basically, Krishna’s advice explains how each one has individual control over their emotions and actions and most importantly on their destiny. Therefore, it is our choice to do good or evil which is not based on what other people say or not. On the other hand, in the world of Socrates, an individual should be guided on what to do which is contrary to the aspect of telling Socrates into obeying. Therefore, based on this option one can be misled by the conscience and an individual should act based on what he or she thinks is morally right.


The two philosophers through their conversation bring out a diverse outlook of making the decision. According to Socrates, there is always an inner-conscience that will always give direction on what an individual should do. However, Prince Arjan seeks advice on what to do and Krishna tells him to act without fear of the consequences. This provides an array for an individual to act without limitations in the society.