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Investigating a Classroom

Introduction

I have chosen to investigate literature course for this assignment. I believe in the power of narratives. It is such as amazing experience to critically analyze characters, sentences, words, plotlines among others. This is the experience I get while undertaking literature class. Literature brings a new reality in every situation. Now, this is the joy of studying literature. Even with this amazing experience, I have realized that students either abandon the course or perform poorly. For this reason, I have decided to investigate the course. By the time I am investigating the course forty students had attended the class. The class is dominated by lecture method. The students in the class are sited facing the teacher. Majority of the students had writing materials and the majority were busy taking notes while the teacher was explaining the points. Five students had their writing materials but did not note down any points although they were recording the lecture using their phones. The professor seemed comfortable with this and did not question the students. Three students asked questions and the professor answered them immediately without discussion. For the first 25 minutes, the students were alert and those taking notes looked very busy. However, the rest of the minutes, the students seemed to have less interest in the lecture. In fact, five minutes to the end of the session, more than half the class had packed their bags ready to leave. During the lesson, the teacher gave out four interesting examples that I found very interesting especially in enhancing understanding of the topic.

Teaching Style

The topic of the day was genres of literature. Upon arrival in class, the teacher wrote down the topic on the whiteboard ready to teach. She greeted the students and they responded with a lot of enthusiasm. All students had arrived in class on time. According to the look in their eyes, they were all ready to learn. The teacher asked the students if they knew any type of genres. None responded. She proceeded to tell them that there are two main groups of literature genres, nonfiction and fiction. Majority of the students wrote down this. Although the teacher tried to encourage comments from the students, she did not give it too much attention. Whenever students took time to respond she went ahead to answer the questions she asked them. She started teaching students on nonfiction genres. Her notes were saved in her laptop and through a projection, she taught the students about essays, speech, and biographies. During this session, the lesson was purely lecture. The teacher spoke while the students took notes. After a five minutes break, the session continued on fiction genres. The first genre was drama. After teaching about drama, the teacher encouraged students to take two minutes to present a short drama. Two students presented a very interesting short drama and the class was all alert. The second genre was poetry. The teacher read an example of a poem to the students. Although the poem was interesting, it seems as of a majority of the students did not get its meaning and therefore did not find interesting. Those who seemed to understand it were excited. Other genres that the teacher introduced were short stories, fairy tales, fantasy, and horror.

While explaining about fantasy genres students asked two questions and the teacher answered them. While teaching, the instructor stood in front of the class because she needed to use the projector while giving the instructions which was strategically positioned in the classroom. Whenever there was a new word which was note projected, she used the whiteboard to ensure that the students get the spelling of the word. At the end of every sub-topic, there were three questions that the students were to attempt in order to gauge their understanding of the concepts. At the end of the topic, the instructor had five questions. She asked them randomly. Two students were unable to answer the questions which were derived from the topic studied on this day. The questions were directed to other students who tried to attempt but were not able to give the exact answers although they had the right idea. After the questions, the instructors divided the class into five groups each group with a membership of eight students. Each group was a given a question to handle which focused on one genre. The groups would then present the assignment to the teacher for marking. Some students walked out of the class discussing the content of the lesson while a majority walked out with the headphones on. This suggests that the approach used by the teacher, that is lecture method with few questions and takeaway assignment, was partially effective.

Student’s perspective

At the beginning of the session, the students seemed to pay attention. This was possible to detect from their eyes and ears that seemed alert. The fact that some were smiling and nodding their heads in responding to the teacher showed that the students were paying attention. However half of the session the students were not very attentive which even drove the instructor to give them a five minutes break. There was a two minutes discussion on discussion drama for a short presentation. However, a good number of students just faced each other taking that moment to stretch. There were three students seated strategically who seemed to very interested in the topic compared to others. I felt that the reason some students were more attentive is that they are probably very interested in the topic that no matter what approach is taken they would still afford to be attentive. For the others, could be they are just beginning to grow interested in the topic and they need a more effective approach that would help them be more attentive and enhance their understanding which triggers interest.

Personal perspective

I personally like the idea of participating in class. Listening to a lecture is very interesting. However, when learning new concepts, I get find to understand without participating by either asking questions or answering them. a love literature and when it comes to literature genres I have a lot of interest. There is so much to learn when it comes to all the genres. Some are confusing especially when it comes to categorizing them as fiction and nonfiction. This is what interests me a lot on the topic. Failure to understand the genres would make it challenging to be a good writer in future. This is why I interact with the professors as well as with other students to ensure that I fully grasp what is being taught in class. Apart from answering and asking questions in class, I would want to participate in class discussions, presentations, and demonstrations with a purpose of enhancing understanding. I feel that the instructor in this particular session was partly effective. If the lecture approach was effective, then all students would pay attention throughout the lesson. Again, the students would not be in a hurry to leave the class minutes before the session was to end. Just as (Bajak 4) argues, “teaching approaches that turned students into active participants reduce failure rates”. “Change it up every 10 minutes with more active teaching techniques and more students will succeed” (Bajak 1). It means the lecture approach.

Conclusion

Literature is very interesting. Literature is part of human life. With a great understanding of literature, it is possible to explain and understand humanity that comes with complicated issues. By understanding literature genres, it is possible to not only analyze but also write professionally. However, in order to understand concepts, it is important for instructors to use approached that are effective. In the class I investigated, the lecture method used in educating learners was ineffective. It is important that instructor uses more active learning approaches to ensure that learners grasp all content taught (Bajak 9). This approach includes the use of involving students in clarifying concepts to their colleagues, encouraging students to argue out a point and reach a concept, encouraging questions and answers, and assigning individuals and group questions to tackle randomly (Bajak 10). However, it is improper to replace lecture method fully with the active learning approaches. According to Tokumitsu (6), “lectures are not designed to transmit knowledge directly from lecturers’ lips to students’ brains,” Lecture method also has its advantages. For instance, an instructor is able to read the facial expression of students. With this, an instructor would be able to change an approach to keep the learners interested and focused. This is unlike some active learning approaches like group discussions where a lecturer would be unable to read every student’s reaction. In addition, “giving a lecture forces an instructor to communicate their knowledge in real time” (Tokumitsu 7). It is thus recommended that instructors use a combination of lecture and active learning approach for effectiveness.

Work Cited

Bajak, Aleszu, ‘Lectures aren’t just boring, they are ineffective too, study finds’ American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2014.

Tokumitsu, Miya, ‘In Defense of the Lecture’ Catalyst Journal, 2017.

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Geog 2000, Week 1 Exercise 1

Question 12.

To what extent do you think the U.S.-Canadian magazine dispute was motivated by genuine desires to protect Canadian culture?

The U.S- Canadian magazine dispute was motivated not only motivated by desires to protect the Canadian culture but also to protect the income gained from selling the magazine. Apart from disrupting traditional producers, and increasing the availability of consumer products that are foreign made, globalization is also encouraging international trade when it comes to cultural products and services such as publications. This is increasing the exposure of communities to foreign cultures. Exposure to foreign cultures brings changes to local traditions. This is what motivated the U.S-Canadian magazine dispute. By increasing the sales of foreign magazines in Canada, Canadians were afraid that the foreign culture would undermine their local culture. Supporting sales of foreign magazines in Canada would Americanize the Canadian culture. Looking at the trend where the U.S cultural products are dominating in Canada, the dispute would be inevitable as every society wished to preserve their local culture. However, apart from preserving the local culture, the U.S- Canadian magazine dispute is also motivated by the need to boost financial gains from local industry. For instance, when it comes to films, Canadian films only account for 2.1% of ticket sales in Canada while American films account for 98%. This prevents Canada from as much income as it would be selling the majority of Canadian film tickets.

To what extent do you think the government of Canada was pressured to seek to protect its market because of the financial interests of the Canadian magazine industry?

The Canadian government was pressured to seek protection of its market because of the financial interests of the Canadian magazine industry. Most of the magazines sold in Canada are foreign. For instance, today, 89% of magazines in the Canadian market are foreign. A large percentage of these magazines are from America. By having foreign magazines being sold in Canada, the foreign publishers would offer a tax deduction to the advertisers in Canada. This would enable them to attract valuable revenue from the ads, revenue that would otherwise be earned by the Canadian Magazine industry. Therefore the Canadian government had to try to save the local industry from collapsing due to this foreign pressure. The government had to protect the producers of the domestic magazines before they were forced out of the market by these foreigners. However, the government was also pressured to protect the local magazines with the interest of preserving the local culture that would be changed by the foreign influence. The Canadian government could also have been motivated by the need to earn more income from the taxes on foreign magazines. Since the larger percentage of magazines sold in Canada are from foreign nations such as the U.S, imposing a tax on them would earn the government a large income. Additionally, the Canadian government saw a great value in magazines as the magazines serve as the national press the country possesses and therefore needed protection. Therefore, the Canadian government did not only have interests in seeking protection for the financial interests of the Canadian Magazine industry but had other interests too.

Given that Canadian magazines constitute only 11 percent of magazine sales in Canada, how important is this matter to Canadian culture?

The Canadian magazines only constitute 11% of magazine sales in Canada while the remaining percentage is sold by foreign nations. Considering that the magazines constitute the only national press in Canada, this percentage is an important matter to Canadian culture. Through producing local magazines, the Canadians would be able to preserve their culture. Allowing foreign magazines to have the large control in the industry would lead to lack of control of the local culture. Therefore, there is a need for the Canadian government to control the selling of foreign magazines in Canada by raising the percentage of local magazines sold in the country. This will be helpful in preserving local culture. This will, however, be possible by having both the locals and the foreigners deciding on the way forward.

Question 12.

If Canadians seem to prefer buying American magazines, why should they not be allowed to “vote” with their purchasing habits?

It is true that the Canadians prefer buying American magazines over the locally produced magazines. Most of the foreign magazines contain some Canadian content. However, the magazines also contain a lot of foreign content that may not be available in local magazines. Due to globalization, the need for foreign products and services has increased. This explains why the Canadians prefer buying the foreign magazines. The Canadians recognize the importance of their unique culture, however, globalization has opened many opportunities both locally and internationally. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, it is important to understand some foreign cultures. However, this does not mean that the Canadians can be allowed to “vote” due to their purchasing habits. This is because even other countries including America have similar experiences. Globalization has brought culture influence. Other countries such as China, India among others have their people embracing American culture. American people have some of their cultures changes by other societies. Some scholars say that globalization is like Americanization. Therefore, it is impossible to allow these people to “vote” just because of their purchasing habits.

Is it fair to levy extra taxes against foreign magazines–which has the effect of forcing Canadian purchasers of foreign magazines to subsidize local publications?

It is fair to levy extra taxes against foreign magazines. However, this should not aim at forcing Canadian purchasers of foreign magazines to subsidize local publications. Levying extra taxes is good because it will help governments to acquire extra income which if used effectively will raise the living standards of the Canadians. However, this should be done in consultation with the foreign producers. This will ensure that the fee is not considered as discriminatory. If the tax becomes discriminatory, Canada will experience trade issues with other countries which it wishes to sell their products. Therefore, the tax should be fair. Instead of overtaxing foreign magazines, the government should consider publishing local magazines that incorporate foreign content that seems to attract local consumers. This will not only increase their local sales but will also help them in preserving their culture. This approach will not force local consumers to support local magazines, it will instead lure them into purchasing the local magazines. In addition, producing local magazines that touch on the content in demand will attract increased local buyers. This will reduce the demand for foreign magazines discouraging foreign producers from selling their publications in Canada.

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What is the current U.S. trade balance?

What is the current U.S. trade balance? You have just read arguments for and against sustaining a trade deficit—which do you find more persuasive and why?

QUESTION 11

What is the current U.S. trade balance? You have just read arguments for and against sustaining a trade deficit—which do you find more persuasive and why? Does your answer change depending on the country you think about (i.e. would you give one answer for the United States, another for Japan, and another for Peru?).

The trade balance refers to the difference between the total values of a country’s exports and imports in a particular year. If the total annual exports go beyond total annual imports, a country is said to have a trade surplus.If the total annual imports exceed the total annual exports, a country is said to have a trade deficit. The United States is the biggest trading country globally. Although the exports of the United States increased between 1995 and 2000, the following period experienced an increase in imports leading to a trade deficit in that decade. By May 2011, the United States recorded a trade deficit of USD 50.2 billion.

I find the first argument against trade deficit as more persuasive. This states that trade deficits are interpreted as a sign of economic weakness of a country. I find this argument convincing because, when a nation seems to have an excessive reliance on products manufactured boy other nations, it shows that the nation has an issue with the economic status. It is true that more imports than exports put domestic production as well as jobs at risk. When a nation has low domestic production and limited jobs, then it definitely has an economic weakness.

On arguments for sustaining a trade deficit, the argument that trade deficit can be a sign of economic strength is more persuasive. Statistics show that imports increase more in times of economic growth. This period is characterized by the ability of consumers as well as firms to spend on both domestic and foreign goods. When consumers have more money to spend, then it is a sign of economic strength. In the 1990s, the U.S recorded higher import levels and trade deficits, yet the economy was booming with a higher employment. I, however, think that this answer is for the case of countries with larges economies, for nations that are still growing, trade deficits would not be a sign of economic strength. It would be a sign of economic weakness for relying largely on foreign products than on domestic production.

There is a relationship between trade deficits and the potential for financial crises. A nation that has a trade deficit indicates that most likely it purchases more than it produces. This means that what will be useful in future investment is being used for present consumption. Therefore such a country will definitely have financial crises in future. For instance, if foreign investors in the United States worry about the trade deficit and decide to sell their assets they have invested in at the same time, then the U.S dollar would definitely lose the value putting the nation at an increased risk of financial crises.

Trade deficits can have a positive economic effect in a country. When a nation has a trade deficit, foreign sellers of products and services accumulate a large amount of money in form of the currencies of that particular country. Such currencies such as dollars and Euros cannot be used in some foreign countries meaning that the investors will have to invest in that particular country. Such investments would be in form of bonds, stocks, companies, and other assets. These investments play a significant role in boosting economic growth. The ability to sustain trade deficits depend on a country’s economic strength. A nation that is economically strong, is able to have control over trade deficits. A weak economy will be unable to control sustain trade deficits putting a nation’s economy at the potential risk of collapsing.

QUESTION 12

How has the American economy changed over the past 20 years? Who benefits and who loses from this transition? What role has the U.

The American economy has changed over the past 20 years especially when it comes to trade. In the 1990s, the U.S exports experienced increase, however, after that imports have increased leading to a substantial trade deficit at the end of the decade. Since 2000, America, the US in particular, has experienced an increased trade deficit associated with more imports exceeding exports. Although the trade deficit reduced in 2011, it is still high indicating that the U.S has more imports than exports.

The foreign producers who export their goods to America have gained more income from massive sales. After selling their goods and services, these foreigners selling their products in America invest in American assets which serve as a source of extra income for them. The American people also benefit from the increased importation which avails a variety of products. However, this transition has contributed to a gradual shrinkage of the number of US employees holding jobs that are well paying. Since a majority of Americans with lower skills tend to work in the manufacturing sector, they have been hit hardest by the increased importation of goods and services.

The U.S government has played a major role in trying to smoothen the transition for American workers by creating more jobs in the higher-tech manufacturing industries as well as in the service sector. This is in response to the declining job opportunities and wages in the manufacturing sector. The U.S government has also tried to ensure that the transition is smooth by trying to manage trade flows through encouraging exports and putting some restrictions on imports.

As an additional effort, the U.S government should ensure that there is no discrimination when it comes to occupation and employment to ensure that the Americans secure job opportunities that would enable them to earn a living. Ensuring that there is a balance between imports and exports will also ensure that the manufacturing jobs in America are not taken away by importing all goods and services. Maintain and support the manufacturing sector will ensure that Americans secure the well-paying jobs.

The U.S federal and state governments are focusing on funding programs that will help employees to acquire new skills necessary in the higher-tech manufacturing and service sector. At the local level, the government should ensure that a majority of citizens are encouraged to take part in these programs that will equip them with skills that will enable them to secure jobs in the era of high technology and service sectors.

Looking at the school trend, the subjects have shifted from focusing on agricultural production to manufacturing, and currently, the focus is on higher-tech manufacturing. Classes that focus on high technology are being offered in almost all schools, something that would not have been possible a decade ago. Today, students are being hired by companies that focus on high technology a trend that is different from before.

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How do you evaluate the benefits

How do you evaluate the benefits or detriments of foreign investment? How much weight do you give to the concern that FPI can lead to economic upheaval?

Geog 2000–Week 1–Part 3

QUESTION 6

How do you evaluate the benefits or detriments of foreign investment? How much weight do you give to the concern that FPI can lead to economic upheaval? Do you find the argument that foreign investment amounts to “buying” another country?

By looking at the success of the reasons behind the foreign investment, one is able to evaluate the benefits and detriments of foreign investment. A beneficial foreign investment has the following characteristics; first, it helps investors to find new consumers of their goods and services. This results in higher returns than investments done locally. Second, a beneficial foreign investment helps investors in seeking resources in foreign at a cheaper cost. A beneficial foreign investment helps in seeking strategic assets that are helpful in producing more quality products associated with higher income. Recipient countries evaluate the benefits of the foreign investment by looking at the living standards before and after the investments. FDI is associated with rising living standards for the recipient countries. If foreign investment lowers the value of a local business or lowers the comparative advantage of the recipient country, then it is considered to be more detrimental rather than beneficial.

Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is a category of investment instruments. It is consists of securities as well as other financial assets which are held by foreign investors passively. This kind of investment does not give an investor with a direct ownership of the assets. The foreign portfolio is relatively liquid depending on the market volatility. When it comes to FPI, investors buy bonds, stocks, among other financial assets in foreign nations. However, the investor does not actively manage the investments meaning that they do not have control over the business. For this reason, the concerns over FPI effects on economic upheaval is less weighty than it would be when it comes to foreign direct investment that controls their investments.

Foreign investments are bringing more income for investors brought about by tapping available foreign markets, producing quality products for local consumers, and selling of goods and services at a cheaper price due to lower production costs. Recipient countries also benefit from foreign investment by getting quality products at an affordable price. Again, foreign investment does not involve buying assets of a recipient country. They instead invest in some assets, beneficial to both the investors and the recipient. For these reasons, I do not support the argument that foreign investment amounts to buying another country. Addressing concerns over foreign investments will help more people to embrace foreign investments.

Controlling foreign investment in prominent sectors of a nation’s economy such as encouraging foreign portfolio investment will help in addressing such concerns. This will help reduce the suspicions of foreign investors wanting to control domestic society. Giving more attention to local production will also help address the concerns over greater reliance over foreign products.

Local investors from wealthier countries are closing their operations in higher cost domestic manufacturing to send them to foreign countries especially the developing countries where they take advantage of lower wages. This means that many domestic jobs are lost. Also, FDI may encourage exploitation of overseas workers. However, the rate of FDI is lower as compared to domestic investment meaning that only limited jobs are lost which does not exceed the income from the investments.

There is a shift of job distribution in the United States over the past decades where people are losing jobs in the manufacturing industry. A majority of people are now seeking jobs in the higher technology sector which seems to have more job opportunities. The manufacturing sector jobs are leaving the United States as companies take their production processes in foreign countries. The jobs are instead taken by people in the recipient countries. The manufacturing jobs are being replaced by jobs in the higher technology sector.

QUESTION 7

Is it better for your economy to produce goods at home, or is it preferable to move production overseas so that consumers may pay lower prices? What is the effect on developing countries of these shifts in production?

Moving production overseas enables economies to have their consumer purchase products at a lower price than they would if production was done domestically. This is associated with the availability of cheaper resources such as lower wages such as less restrictive environmental regulations. Moving production overseas enables investors to buy elements of a final product overseas in making products, this makes production more efficient reducing production costs which eventually enables consumers to access the products at a lower price. Another advantage of moving production overseas is that it challenges local corporations to be more efficient and competitive. The local competitions also ensure that their prices are affordable for them to attract more consumers. Although movie production overseas is beneficial, it should be controlled. This is to ensure there are employment opportunities for local people. In addition, the domestic production plays a major role in maintaining a local touch that may be overlooked in foreign production. Therefore, economies should seek to make some production overseas which ensures that consumers access the products at a lower price but also invest in a local production that helps in maintaining a stable economy.

Developing countries experience various effects of increased foreign investment. Most developing countries have a high demand for goods and services. They also tend to have labor and natural resources necessary to supply the goods. However, they lack access to capital for producing the goods. Foreign investors help in giving such capitals, enabling these countries to begin the production. This is important considering that banks in developing countries cannot afford to fund such investments. By funding the projects, many jobs are created in developing countries. As a result, there is higher income as well as increased consumer demand which boosts local economic growth. The capital invested in developing countries is of tremendous benefit to the economy of recipient countries, strengthening their currencies, and helps in reducing interest rates by increasing the capital supply of loans.

It is better to create jobs in developing countries because it results in higher income and raised living standards which are associated with improved economic growth. An improved economic growth will not only benefit the developing countries but will also enable foreign investors to make more income. When it comes to labor and environment concerns, standard policies should be put into measures. These policies should address labor wages, job security as well as working conditions. When it comes to the environment, there should be policies that will ensure that preservation of nature and public health is given priority over the cost of globalization.

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A history of the US civil rights movement

The civil rights movement was established ensure that black people in America accessed equal rights when it comes to citizenship[1]. The movement can be traced back to 19th century. However the activities peaked in the 1950s. Black and White people led the movement at local and national levels to achieve their set goals. The Dred Scott case marked a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of United States on Constitutional law and US labour law. The court held that Negros that were imported and sold as slaves in the US, of the free slaves did not qualify to be American citizens and had no right to sue in federal court. The court also held that the federal government had no power to over slavery regulation in the federal territories that were acquired after the US was created. Scott black enslaved man attempted suing his owners for his freedom. Chief Justice Taney led the court in declining the request. The decision incited heated rebellion from anti-slavery groups in the North. It is believed that the decision, acted as an indirect catalyst for Civil War. The decision was however, superseded by the 1866 Civil Rights Act and by the 14th Amendment to the US constitution of 1868 that gave blacks right to citizenship (Karson 11). The 14th Amendment gave equal protection to blacks in America under the law.

The 15th Amendment in 1870 gave African Americans right to vote. Many whites however, especially those from the South were not happy that the enslaved people were playing in an equal field. In 1875, the congress passed the Civil Rights Act prohibiting racial discrimination. This was in response to the refusal of many whites to avail their facilities to the blacks. The Act also supported equality of public accommodations’ access to all people irrespective of their race. The move made the white supremacists to establish a campaign against black people. In 1896, in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson the US Supreme Court upheld the 1890 Louisiana statute that mandated racial segregation but equal railroads cars (Thomson 17). The ruling legitimized ‘’Jim Crow” practices in the South[2]. Black people were not to use same public facilities with the whites neither could they live in same places. Majority of black people could not vote because they failed tests on pass voter literacy. Although Jim Crow laws were not adopted in the North, black people still underwent discrimination in the region where even some states limited blacks’ rights to vote.

In 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People was formed. This was the largest civil rights movement ever witnessed in America. Black and white activists formed the organization in New York City mainly due to the violence experienced by black people in the country. The 1908 race riot in Springfield led to the creation of the civil rights movement. The lynching in particular horrified people making the movement to gain support. NAACP aimed at ensuring that black people enjoyed the rights in the Amendments to the constitution of the US. The Amendments promised equal law protection, universal adult male suffrage, and end of slavery. The mission of the organization is to ensure promote economic, political, social, and educational equality for the minority in the US. NAACP seeks to eliminate racial discrimination barriers through a democratic process[3].

In 1945, the US Supreme Court ruled against school segregation in the case Brown v. Topeka Board of Education ruling that the practice was against the constitution paving way for desegregation[4]. The decision came as a victory for NAACP. In August 1955, a black teenager was brutally beaten and killed by two white men, a case that initiated civil rights movement.In the same year December, Rosa Parks defied a southern custom which led to her arrest[5]. In response the blacks launched a boycott until the buses desegregated[6]. In February 1957, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was formed led by Luther King Jr. the conference organized civil rights movement based on civil disobedience and non-violence.

In 1957, integration has proven difficult where nine blacks in Central High School were prevented from accessing the school under the orders of the Orval Fabus, the Arkansas Governor. Even with the intervention of the police, the nine black students had to be moved out of the school due to the pressure of the whites. The incident fuelled protests on the issue. Although by this time majority of Americans had the right to vote, the blacks in the South had challenges since they had to undertake misleading and confusing voter literacy tests that were difficult to pass. In an attempt to show support to the civil rights movement in the South, the administration of the Eisenhower put pressure on the congress to consider new legislation of the civil rights. The attempt led to the signing of the Act of Civil Rights of 1957 into a Law. This was the first major legislation of civil rights since Reconstruction.However, black people continued experiencing prejudice. Black people could not be served in segregated lunch counters, leading to peaceful demonstrations in various cities in 1960. The prejudice led to the establishment of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee which aimed at encouraging students to be involved in civil rights organizations[7].

In August 1963, more than 200,000 white and black people led by civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr congregated in Washington, D.C. the peaceful march aimed at establishing job equality irrespective of race and forcing legislation of civil rights[8]. In 1964, President Johnson signed 1964 Act of Civil Rights into law[9]. The law promised integration of public facilities, limited voter literacy tests, and equality in employment (Salvatore 76). In March 1965, 600 demonstrators marched peacefully from Selma to Montgomery in protest of a black activist. The group was however, blocked by local and Alabama police while on their way and when they refused ti stand down, they were teargased, beaten, and majority hospitalized, an incident popularly known as the “bloody Sunday”.

In August 1965, the 1965 Act of Voting Rights was signed into a law. This banned use of all voter literacy test. The law also led to the declaration of poll taxes as unconstitutional in the case Harper v. Board of Elections of Virginia State. In Feb 1965, Malcom X one of the leaders of the civil rights movement was assassinated in Manhattan. Malcom was famous for his participation in fighting for the freedom of black people. In April 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was also assassinated. The incident led charged riots and lootings that were emotional forcing the president to sign in more laws on civil rights. After King’s assassination, the Fair Housing Act was signed into law inhibiting housing discrimination based on religion, sex, or race.

By late 1969 on 1% of black students attended public schools with white students in the South. It is in various legal cases that the federal court prohibited segregated schools[10]. The court required schools to establish plans that would bring white and black children in one school under the same roof. In 1971, school bussing was upheld as a means of promoting integration in schools (Hall 1258). After King’s assassination, the civil rights movement started losing momentum. Observers acknowledge that the movement initiated legislation that brought reforms in the American society which opened up social, economic, and political opportunities to black people. However, the civil rights movement are blamed for failing to address black people economic needs.

Today civil rights movements continue to play a significant role in the U.S. the movements recognize various challenges that the country continues to experience including inadequate healthcare, and underfunded schools. Up to today black people are still getting poor educational opportunities. Some states are still making it hard for black people to vote. Also the issue of poverty and economic inequality are among the major issues that the civil rights movements are addressing today in the U.S. Movements such as NAACP are still fighting to ensure that there are equal opportunities for all people irrespective of their race or religion in America. Although there are many positive impacts of the civil rights movements in America including black people serving in leadership positions, the issue of racism still remains a challenge. In response many civil rights have been formed all with a purpose of ensuring that the minority in the society are treated equally and given similar opportunities like the majority.

Work Cited

Hall, Jacquelyn, The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past school segregation, The Journal of American History, 2005, pp.1220-1258.

Karson, Jill, The Civil Rights Movement, United States: Thomson Gale, 2005, pp.1-122.

Salvatore, Susan, Civil Rights in America: Racial Desegregation of Public Accommodations, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2004, pp.1-178.

Thomas, Brook, ed. Plessy v. Ferguson: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.


  • Jill Karson, The Civil Rights Movement (United States: Thomson Gale, 2005), p.12
  • Susan Cianci Salvatore, Civil Rights in America: Racial Desegregation of Public Accommodations (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2004), p.14 The Supreme Court ruling legitimized ‘Jim Crow’ rules
  • Salvatore, Civil Rights in America: Racial Desegregation of Public Accommodations, p.24. The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People was formed in 1909.
  • Karson, The Civil Rights Movement, p.13.Brown The US Supreme Court ruled against school segregation in the case Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.
  • Karson p. 14 Rosa Parks defies a southern custom leading to her arrest
  • Salvatore, p. 45 Black people boycotts buses in response to the arrest of Rosa Parks
  • Salvatore, p.59 Establishment of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
  • Karson p. 17 Washington march
  • Salvatore, p.76 President signing of the Act of Civil Rights into law
  • Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past school segregation, (The Journal of American History, 2005.), p.1258.
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What were the most important historical

What were the most important historical and geographical processes that shaped conditions in your country in the late 1940s?

China experienced colonialism after the British Navy won the first Opium War in 1942. By 1860, colonialism had strengthened in China at the end of the second opium war. Various activities in colonial era integrated China into the world economy. The activities include increased pressure to embrace foreign trade. Introduction of modern industrialization that made China produce goods more efficiently created foreign market demand. To end the internal rebellion China was experiencing, some Chinese supporting adoption of western ideas. Relations with foreign nations opened China into foreign trade. The integration process reshaped China in various ways. China changed landownership, invested in agriculture to ensure that all farmers make a living out of it, promoted foreign trade, promoted industrialization associated with urban development, and led to political stability in the country in 1949. Introduction to foreign trade, modern industrialization, Chinese support of western ideas, and relations with foreign nations made China to grow economically and to experience political stability in the late 1940s.

Colonialism era integrated China into foreign trade. The demand for agricultural products was higher during the colonial era. At first the government opposed the idea of a foreign trade. However, the imperial powers forced it to open up ports in China to foreign trade. Over a period of time, the rate of treaty ports increased promoting foreign trade. By 1840, only one port was used for international trade. This angered western countries that wished to import more products from china. After China was defeated in the Opium war between 1840 and 1842, it was forced to open the economy to foreign trade through treaty ports. The Chinese Maritime Customs service introduced new customs procedures and transparent rules that influenced the central government into supporting foreign trade through the broader political influence in the country (Pepper 23). Through the organization, western countries were able to expand the commercial exchange with China. The CNC examined cargo, prevented smuggling, and assessed treaty tariffs on imports, exports, and costal trade. This attracted foreign countries to trade with China hence the economic global integration. During the treaty of Nanjing in 1842, five ports were opened in China to foreign trade. After the defeat in the second Opium was, more ports were opened to foreign trade. At the end of the Century, more other Chinese ports were open to foreign trade. CMC organization was focussed on important ports in relation to foreign trade (Keller et al. 34). This allowed China to import and export goods with foreign countries like Japan, Great Britain, USA, British India, and Russia, among others.

Modernized industrialization improved China’s production of goods and services. During the colonial era, there was an introduction of industrialization based on modern machinery. By 1913, 700 modern types of machinery and mining enterprises were established in the country. The Qing government opposed modern industrialization until 1895. As a result, new industries were established that were based on modern machinery that competed with the traditional handicraft industry. The foreign owned industries attracted foreign investment especially those in treaty port cities. Other non-manufacturing sectors such as modern shipbuilding, modern mining, railway, and advanced technology received foreign investment. In addition, import-export business was also controlled by foreign capital. The support from foreign countries influenced the Chinese central government to be open to foreign trade. The new industries operating with modern machines led to the production of more products. Industrialization improved China technologically, enabling the country to manufacture a variety of products needed across the globe (Lardy 67). The railway, modern ship buildings, also made it easy to travel or to transport the goods across countries promoting Chinese economic global integration.

Some Chinese supported adoption of western ideas to in response to the internal rebellion. After western countries invaded China, various catastrophes hit the nation. Man-made disasters such as floods due to over-reclamation of mountain slopes, lowlands, and wetlands hit the country. Natural disasters such as drought and famine were also a challenge. The huge presence of western countries made China be unable to cater for the hue population. This lead to various internal rebellions (Shakil 6). In response to the imperialism, a section of the Chinese rejected cultural superiority, and supported the idea of adopting western ideas with a purpose of preserving the principle of Chinese civilization. This influenced majority of Chinese into supporting global integration.

Foreign relations opened China to foreign trade. The foreign relations of China made it difficult for the Qing dynasty to control the internal rebellions. Various nations including Japan, Germany, France, Russia, and Britain, claimed influence over China (Keller 45). These countries looked for major development areas such as railways, naval ports, and mines. These relations imported various resources from other countries into China for their operations. They also exported their products in China to other countries integrating China in the world economy.

The following section discusses how the integration processes shaped China’s political and economic structures. China made changes in landownership to improve living standards of all Chinese citizens. China government took over the ownership of land that was previously in private hands. Mao’s intention was to modernize China by eliminating peasant society through industrialization and urbanization (Meisner 89). Agriculture was therefore changed to achieve the goals. Land reform led to changing agriculture. Through a national program, land reforms were carried out where titles of 45% of the arable land were taken from landlords and other farmers and redistributed to other farm families that owned small pieces of land or no land at all. After successful land reform in a particular region, farmers were to form teams that would enable them to cooperate in production. The land reform aimed at promoting efficiency and equity.

China ensured that farmers make a living out of agriculture. Various organizational changes took part in relation to agriculture. The government mobilized farmers to form socialized and large collective units for facilitation of agricultural resources mobilization, enhance farming efficiency, and to improve government’s access to the agricultural products (Purcell 77). Farmers were to move from small mutual aids teams, to cooperatives of agricultural producers, and finally to advanced cooperatives. In each level, farmers were receiving a certain amount of money. Additionally, every family retained a small plot for growing fruits, vegetables, and keeping livestock. The program started slowly but accelerated in 1955. As a result agricultural output increased.

China used trade is used as a tool for economic modernization. Trade has continued to be an important part of China’s economy. The direction of foreign trade was reshaped by Imperialism. The export base became diversified (Di Giovanni et al. 26). The heavy reliance on textile products lowered with the introduction of light manufacturing. Apart from earning from products such as toys, clothing, footwear, manufactured goods, transport, and machinery, China is gaining from other products such as travel goods, sound and telecommunication equipment, office machines, electrical machinery, data processing equipment that are automated, industrial suppliers, and furniture (Barlow 351). Statistics indicate that there is an increased diversification of exports in China.

China established new industrial sectors such as an automobile, mining machinery, aircraft manufacturing, tractor, metallurgical equipment, heavy and precision machinery, and power generating equipment. Other new industries that were established are petrochemical and electronics engineering. The industrial layout was greatly enhanced (Marx and Friedrich 33). There was prioritization of development of industrial sector. The strategy aimed at catching up with developed countries. The country channelled more money into the industrial sector. Small industries were also established in rural areas which led to the production of farm machinery, electric power, chemical fertilizers, and cement plants. As a result, China experienced greater success in communication, railway, airport, power industry, and port.

The introduction of the system of household registration restricted the number of people living rural areas for cities. This reduced cities’ population. As part of Cultural Revolution, many graduates from high school were relocated to rural areas reducing the population in cities. Specialists such as teachers, engineers, and doctors were moved to rural areas. Various factories in the urban were also moved to the rural area. The rural industrialization in China led to urbanization in the country between 1966 and 1976.

Before the revolution in 1911 ended the Qing dynasty, China experienced prosperity and industrial expansion. The industrialization was centred in Shanghai in the 1920s. The aim of the Nationalist Party was to give China back its freedom from western countries. The attempt enabled China to regain tariff sovereignty from 1929 to 1934. However, under the regime of the Nationalist party, China’s internal politics were characterized by labour strikes, unfavourable treatment of private industries, the emergence of the Communist Party of China and war with Japan. Japan’s defeat in World War II ended its invasion ain China. Internally, the Chinese Communist Party overpowered the Nationalists in 1949.

The presence of western countries in China destabilized the country politically. The government could not control internal rebellion fuelled by the western countries. This lead to the rise of Mao era which started from when the People’s Republic was announced in 1949 to 1978. Mao Zedong, the leader of the Chinese Communist Party announced the establishment of the new party. The announcement of the People’s Republic of China ended the internal civil war between the Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party (Westad 113; Foner 175). The new party also marked the end of the long process of leadership mayhem in the country which ad began in 1911 through Chinese Revolution. Since then, China experienced a notable growth in the national economy, improved living standard, and advance in science and technology (Tsu and Benjamin 78). The new government was recognized by many foreign governments where some formed diplomatic ties with the country including Sweden, Japan, United States, among others. The relations were aimed at improving its economic status. The re-establishment of relationships with foreign countries prompted a period of economic growth through foreign trade. More parts of China were permitted to direct export to foreign nations.

It is clear that introduction to foreign trade, modern industrialization, Chinese support of western ideas, and relations with foreign nations that happened during the imperialism period shaped various situations in China including land reforms, support of foreign trade, huge investment on agriculture and industrialization, and political stability in the late 1940s. Increased pressure to embrace foreign trade, the introduction of modern industrialization, Chinese support for foreign ideas, and international relations integrated China to the world economy. The integration process reshaped China through land reforms, supporting agriculture and industrialization, promoting foreign trade, and the establishment of a stable political party.

Work cited

Barlow, Tani E. “Colonialism’s Career in Postwar China Studies.” Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia, 1 Feb. 1993, pp. 373–411.

Di Giovanni, Julian, Levchenko, Andrei and Zhang, Jing , “The Global Welfare Impact of China: Trade Integration and Technological Change.” . Working paper, 2011.

Foner, Eric. Free soil, free labor, free men: the ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Keller, Wolfgang, and Shiue, Carol. “Market Integration and Long-run Development: A Long-Run Comparison”, Review of Development Economics, 2007, pp.1-53

Keller, Wolfgang, Li, Ben, Shiue, Carol. Shanghai’s Trade, China’s Growth: Continuity, Recovery, and Change since the Opium War, 2013, pp.1-70.

Lardy, Nicholas. Integrating China into the Global Economy, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. 2002.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. On colonialism: articles from the New York tribune and other writings. International Publishers, 1972.

Meisner, Maurice. Mao’s China and After: A History of the People’s Republic, Third ed., The Free Press, 1977.

Pepper, Suzanne. Civil war in China: the political struggle, 1945-1949. Rowman Littlefield, 1999.

Purcell, Victor. The rise of modern China. Historical Association, 1962.

Shakil, Mohammad. The Impact of Colonialism on 19th and Early 20th Century China. Cambridge Journal of China Studies, 11 (2), pp.1-10.

Tsu, Jing, and Benjamin A. Ellman. Science and technology in modern China, 1880s-1940s. Brill, 2014.

Westad, Odd Arne. Decisive encounters: the Chinese civil war, 1946-1950. Stanford University Press, 2004.

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Big Momma

Topic 1: Violet’s Fate

One thing is clear in the story, Mr. Clovis isn’t planning to sacrifice Violet. She isn’t going to be fed to Big Momma. Instead, Clovis is trying to attempt Violet into joining the cult. If the plans were to sacrifice Violet then she would have been sacrificed the first time she visited the home. However, the family spends much time with Violet try to introduce her to the cult. Again that time she was taken to the secret back room, it was a good chance to feed her to Big Momma. However, this did not happen, instead, she was just introduced to the animal. In the room, Mr Clovis told Big Momma, “Look its Violet our new friend” (Oates 12). This suggests that the Big Momma had a new follower, a new member of the cult.

When Violet was introduced to the snake, it stared at her calmly yet one would expect the snake to try to feed on the girl. The calm look suggests that the snake was pleased to have a new follower. The discussion about whether God exists or whether heaven exists is a proof that the Clovis family had a plan to introduce Violet to their cult. The discussion was aimed at influencing Violet from her beliefs to theirs. Previously, young children and pets were the victims of Big Momma. While the victims went missing immediately, which suggests they were fed to the snake, Violet was treated differently considering she was also of older age. They spend much time feeding and taking care of Violet and they could not invest all the time just to sacrifice her. The discussions about God, heaven and whether they exist proof that Violet is being initiated to the Clovis cult.

Topic 2: Mr Clovis’ plan

Mr Clovis is the leader of the crazy cult. According to the story, Mr Clovis called himself the ‘resident Patriarch’. The way he scrutinized faces during meals suggests that he was taking his role as a leader. While they were discussing the existence of God, Mr Clovis showed his leadership role when he ordered the Clovis to keep quiet. Mr Clovis had more plans for Violet than sacrifice her like other victims. He was going to recruit Violet into his cult. He uses the physical affection he shows her as a means to initiate her into the cult. He tells Violet “any friend of my daughter is a friend of mine” (Oates 23). Mr Cloves knows that Violet lacks love from her family. Her mother doesn’t give her enough attention as children deserve. Looking at how comfortable she is at the Clovis home proves that she really longs for love and attention. This is where Mr Cloves comes in. He takes advantage of the missing love and attention to control her. Mr Cloves children are aware of his plans to initiate Violet into the cult. Rita Mae, Clovis daughter says that she wishes she can steal Violet from her mother. This suggests that Mae already knew that they would introduce Violet into the cult.

During the night that Violet was supposed to feed Big Momma, she had forgotten that it was feeding a day, however, Clovis family was all restless and excited. Emile kept on smiling and winking ate her. This indicates that the Mr Clovis children knew what was going on. In addition, in the new school, all the children of Mr Clovis took interest in Violet. In one moment she had no friends in school, the next moment she has friends. Mr Clovis killed his wife and convinced his children that she abandoned them. Rita Mae looked at Violet with a fierce glare after she asked her if the dad could be lying about their mother. This was the only way to establish the cult and initiate the children into it. He defends himself by convincing his children that the mother abandoned them. Use of affection and drugs to control people cannot last Clovis for long. After the effects of his charms, people will go against the cult.

Topic 3: Violet’s Mother Fate

While Violet was making new friendship with the Clovis, her mother was also making new friends of her own. Before her mother was all smelly and dirty, but thanks to the new friends she takes showers, apply cologne, and began to have face make over. On the way to drop Violet to her home, Mr Clovis asked her about her family. From the response he was able to know that she came from a family of a single mother. This suggests that Mr Clovis is behind Violet’s mother change especially on personal hygiene.

Mr Clovis had taken major steps towards initiating Violet into the cult. The only barrier to a successful plan would be the mother. Violet’s mother would prevent her from visiting Clovis family if she knew what was going on, to prevent this, Mr Clovis starts to date the mother with a plan of eliminating her, the barrier to his plan. Death or sacrificing Violet’s mother would be the only way for Violet to join the cult. Violet mother will abandon violet like Clovis wife abandoned her children forever as Rita Mae explains, “she walked out on us” (Oates 13). In short Violet’s mother will most probably die.

Work Cited

Oates Joyce C, “Damn you, Violet—you are a shameless liar.” Celestial Timepiece, 2016. Accessedon 28th Feb 2018 from https://celestialtimepiece.com/2016/06/05/big-momma/

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Effects of drinking in College Students

Abstract

Research shows that drinking among college students continues to be an issue of concern. While students consider the behaviour as part of experiencing school life, there are various negative effects that drinking has on college students including poor academic grades, poor health, and social issues. This paper seeks to answer the question, ‘what are the effects of drinking in college students?’ The paper discusses the effects of drinking alcohol on college students and provides recommendations to avoid engaging in the unhealthy practice.

Introduction

Researchers cite alcohol as the most abused substance in colleges. College drinking is currently a ritual that students take as an integral part of the experience in higher education. A majority of students join schools having not indulged in alcohol drinking but end up being influenced by the unhealthy behaviour. College drinking has negative effects on students including declining academic performance, physical and sexual assault, health problems, increased risk of injuries, and students’ engagement in criminal activities which expose them to legal measures. Apart from damaging one-self, drinkers expose their peers, family members, and the public at risk of being assaulted of damaging their properties. To avoid indulging in the practice students should avoid socializing in bars, avoid drinking emotions, and avoid drinkers. Alcohol drinking has negative consequences on college students including declining academic performance, deteriorating health, and facing legal problems due to criminal activities.

Literature Review

According to Powers Lauren alcohol consumption affects the academic performance of college students. College drinking is associated with social and criminal issues, and poor performance in academics. Two thirds of college students admit to drinking alcohol. Apart from higher rates of death related to alcohol consumption among college students, they also experience other negative effects including sexual assault, hangovers, academic problems, and health issues. Research indicates that alcohol consumption affects the functioning of memory irrespective of the amount taken. The study found that there is a negative relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the number of words one recalls. Therefore, heavy consumption of alcohol affects students’ performance as it interferes with their memory (Powers 2).

Gilbert Jennifer found that consumption of alcohol affects academic achievement. The study found that there is an association between poor academics and heavy college drinking. Students under influence of alcohol reported missing classes, study interruptions, and being unable to execute daily activities. Students under heavy episodic drinking reported decreased academic performance. The author concludes that drinking college students have a low academic motivation related to poor grades. While academic performance is essential in the life after post-graduate, drinking behavior affects it. Increasing academic motivation rather than teaching students on effects of alcohol will help students to maximize academic success (Gilbert 37).

Past research indicates that there is a prevalence of use of alcohol among students. The research has found that many college students take alcohol. While some students manage academic work effectively while still under alcohol influence, others are unable to. Apart from having decreased grades, alcohol has caused a majority of students to drop out of school affecting family relations (Jairus et al. 69). The authors argue that alcohol consumption has negative effects on academic performance and on health.

According to Engs and Aldo-Benson (728), alcoholic consumption increases infectious diseases and other health problems. Clinical evidence shows that there is increased risks of infectious diseases with alcohol drinking. For instance, research shows that chronic alcoholics have an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia. The behaviour is also associated with tuberculosis as it suppresses the immune system. Among college students on alcohol, sexually transmitted diseases, streptococcal infections, urinary tract, and upper respiratory infections are reported. In the United States approximately 20% students are into heavy drinking.

Effects of college alcohol drinking

Academic problems

Approximately, one in four college students admits to alcohol influence in missing class, failing exams, and achieving lower grades. A national survey on college students showed that binge drinkers consuming alcohol thrice a week are six times more likely to poor in academics than drinkers who drink but don’t binge (Singleton et al. 363). Binge drinking is a drinking patter which leads to o.o8 grams per decilitre alcohol content in the blood. Binge drinkers experience hangovers that bring about poor academic performance. Estimates indicate that 25% of college students fail to realize their academic potential due to alcohol abuse. 64% of binge drinkers report failing to attend class due to alcohol compared to 7% of their colleagues. The drinkers prioritize drinking over studying for exams, completing homework, and even attending classes (Coyman 5). Memory loss and blackouts induced by alcohol is a common issue with alcoholics. Memory plays an important part in remembering what one read. When alcohol leads to its loss, then a student cannot remember what was taught and ends up failing exams leading to poor grades (Alcohol Rehab Guide 3).

A national College Alcohol Survey found 27% of drinking students report that they experienced memory loss due to alcohol in the past one year. The majority reported having black out weekly. In the United States, 58% of the college students on full time basis between the age of 18 and 22 took alcohol in the past month compared to 48.25% of other people in the same age bracket (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 4). 12.5% of college students in the same age reported heavy drinking compared to 8.5% of non-students in the same age. This proves that college students are into drinking despite the negative effects the behaviour has on academics. Failing a class may costs dollars to change majors or retake a course. A student also takes a lot of time to complete a program.

Assaults

Alcohol makes one vulnerable as it lowers one’s inhibitions. Approximately 97,000 college students in the U.S report sexual assault and date rapes related to alcohol. Sexual assaults perpetrators aim at victims who are drunk. Mostly the victims are incoherent to fight back and pass out before they know what just happened. Apart from having unwanted pregnancies, sexual assaults expose one to sexually transmitted diseases, and psychological damage. Empirical research has greatly focussed on rape victimization and high rate of sexual coercion especially among female students. The research found that much of the victimization is linked to alcohol use of the victim. Many female students report being taken advantage of when they are drunk. Research shows that even males students are sexually assaulted when they are drunk. Apart from sexual assault, drunk college students experience or execute physical assaults. In the U.S more than 696,000 students are assaulted by another student under the influence of alcohol.

Developing healthy issues

Alcohol drinkers experience short-term illnesses such as nausea, vomiting, and hangovers, the majority of college students on alcohol experience these conditions. While these illnesses recover after sometime, there are long-term effects on health related to alcohol. The major effect is reduced resistance to diseases. Immune systems of heavy drinkers get weak with time making it hard to resist diseases. This exposes drinkers to increased health risks. Around 150,000 college students develop health issues related to alcohol yearly including diseases such a s pancreas inflammation, high blood pressure, lover damage among others.

College students who take alcohol frequently are at a higher risk of developing alcohol dependence later in their life. This results in alcoholism, a mental health issue that sometimes leads to suicide. Some studies have proven that alcohol misuse affects mental stability resulting in extreme effects such as committing suicide. Many college drinkers report having suicidal thoughts and others attempted suicide. Other cases of students who have committed suicide have been reported. 20% of college students are diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 6), a mental problem, whose symptoms include strong drinking urge, challenges while trying to quit alcohol, being unable to undertake daily chores, and giving up other activities for alcohol consumption among other.

Risky of injuries and self-harm

Drinking alcohol exposes one to increased risk of injury. It could be minor cuts or broken bones. The higher the alcohol content in blood the higher the chances of getting injured. Research shows that more than 600,000 college students injure themselves unintentionally every year under the influence of alcohol. More than 1825 college students die from car crashes and other injuries related to alcohol consumption. Unprotected sexual activities increase the risk of STDs (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 3). Research shows that a majority of college students tend to engage in unprotected sex while under the influence of alcohol. A study conducted in New York, found that more than quarter of college students engages in unprotected sex due to drinking. Heavy episodic drinkers are more likely to engage in unprotected sex than their peers. This increases their risk of contracting the many diseases that are transmitted sexually harming themselves.

Engaging in criminal activities

Alcohol influence drives drinkers to act abnormally. This involves acting in a manner that one would not act while sober. College students who are highly intoxicated engage in damaging of properties, vandalism, illegal driving among others. Other harmful activities include homicide, kidnapping, and battery. Majority of students with access to cars drive under the influence of alcohol. According to National Survey data, one third of college students drive under alcohol influence in an academic year. Such misconducts result in disciplinary measures such as arrests and prosecutions. A study shows that 5 to 12% of college students report having trouble with authority related to alcohol abuse.

While some students are arrested for driving while drunk others are arrested and persecuted for assaulting their peers, family members or passer-by. The legal punishments include probation, jail time, fines, and suspended licence (Perkins 110). If the criminal activities are undertaken in school environment such as assaulting other students sexually or physically, damaging school’s properties, or vandalism, the institution takes measures against the student which includes suspending the student, demanding payment of the damages, or reporting a student to the police for legal actions. This does not only destroy the reputation of a student, but also puts a student at an increased risk of dropping out of the system. Research shows that majority of students found guilty of committing criminal activities perform poor academically doe to missed classes or end up dropping out of school.

Recommendations

The following recommendations will help college students to avoid indulging into the unhealthy behaviour of drinking alcohol.

Avoid drinking emotions

When faced with difficult times, like difficult subjects, family disagreement, peer relationship issues, or challenging exams, students should seek other alternatives other than turning to alcohol which is a depressant. Similarly, positive emotions should not be expressed by drinking alcohol. Considering healthier ways such as engaging in sports is a better way.

Avoid drinking points

Instead of socializing in bars, college students should consider other places that don’t sell alcohol. Going to watch movies or listening to music will not avail alcohol reducing the chance of drinking it. It is hard to overcome the temptation of alcohol in bars. Therefore, avoiding them is better.

Avoid drinkers

Peer influence is one of the major elements that introduce college students to alcohol drinking. Peers always manage to influence one’s behaviour. Socializing with drinkers definitely encourages one drink alcohol (Iconis 244). However, avoiding them and hanging out with non-drinkers supports a source of support for those wishing to quit alcohol or those trying to avoid it. Many college students admit having been introduced to alcohol by their friends already into drinking. Therefore avoiding then altogether prevents one from indulging in the unhealthy behaviour.

Conclusion

It is clear that drinking alcohol has negative effects on college students including poor academic performance, deteriorating health, engaging in criminal activities, and engaging or being exposed to physical or sexual assault. While many students continue to drink as part of school experience, it is important to note that, alcohol has more negative effects than positive. Every student wished to excel in their academics, drinking alcohol is however a barrier to realize such dreams. It is therefore important to avoid alcohol or quit it to avoid its negative effects. This will not only improve academic performance, but also improve personal healthy, and prevent legal problems associated with criminal activities or assaults. The following recommendations are useful in staying away from alcohol drinking; avoid socializing in bars, using healthy means too deal with positive and negative emotions, and socializing with non-drinkers.

Work Cited

Alcohol Rehab Guide, ‘College Alcoholism’ Alcohol Rehab Guide, 2018, Accessed on 1st March 2018 from https://www.alcoholrehabguide.org/resources/college-alcohol- abuse/

Coyman, Jill, ‘The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Performance among College Students, n.d, pp. 1-10.

Gilbert, Jennifer, ‘The Effects of Drinking on University Grades: Does Academic Motivation Play a Role?’ Undergraduate Honors Theses. Paper 7, 2014, pp. 1-37.

Iconis, RoseMary, ‘Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention’ Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 2014, Vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 243-245.

Jairus, Enyi, Vanen, Kpurkpur, Ode, Francis, Jerry, Omenka, and Terlumun, Jato, ‘Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Students’ Academic Performance in Tertiary Institution (A Case Study of College of Education, Oju)’ International Journal of Science and Research Methodology, 2017, Vol. 6 no. 2.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, ‘Alcohol Facts and Statistics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2017. Accessed on 1st March 2018 from https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, ‘College Drinking’ National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2015, pp.1-4.

Perkins, Wesley, H., ‘Surveying the Damage: A Review of Research on Consequences of Alcohol Misuse in College Populations’ Journal of studies on alcohol, 2002, no.14, pp. 91-139.

Powers, Lauren, ‘Effect of Alcohol Consumption on College Student’s Academic Performance’ Proceedings of The National Conference on Undergraduate Research, 2014, pp.1-10.

Singleton, Royce A. and Amy, Wolfston, “Alcohol Consumption, Sleep, and Academic Performance among College Students.” Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2009, Vol.70 no.3, pp. 355-363.

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Post-Course written assignment

Read the attached paper from the British Medical Journal titled “Maternal Overweight and Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Infant Mortality: A Population Based Cohort Study in Sweden”.

Answer the following questions. There are 10 questions and a total of 25 marks are available for this assignment. Marks allocated to each question are clearly shown in parentheses. The recommended time to complete the assignment is 3 hours. Answer each question in not more than 100-150 words. Unnecessarily long answers will be penalized. Use Font size 11. Do not type outside the boxes provided. Do not cut and paste. Adjusted the provided space after each question to fit your answer.

The study aimed to investigate the associations between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality outcomes. Study researchers adjusted odds ratios for seven confounders. Briefly explain and discuss the justification for controlling each confounder in the analysis (3 marks). Note: You may need to search on PubMed to find the associations between these variables.Although the researchers adjusted the odds ratios for parity, birth spacing was not included in the adjusted model. Briefly discuss whether you think the researchers should have adjusted the odds ratios for the inter-pregnancy interval(s) (2 marks). Note: You may need to search on PubMed to find the associations between birth spacing and both the exposure variable and the outcome variable.In many European countries, mothers continue to smoke during pregnancy. Briefly discuss how smoking habits were measured in this study and the validity of these estimates (2 marks)Discuss whether you think the strength of the association between maternal overweight/obesity and infant mortality may have been affected by information bias related to the exposure variable (3 marks)Review Table 1 and briefly discuss why you think the rates of infant, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality declined from 1992-1996, 1997-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 (3 marks)Study authors report that the population attributable fraction (PAF) related to maternal overweight/obesity was 11% and 7% for smoking. Interpret and discuss the public health significance of the reported PAF (3 marks).The authors report that the study findings may have been influenced by residual confounding. Define the term residual confounding and discuss the potential role of residual confounding in the context of this study (2 marks)One method to minimize potential residual confounding is to use a within-siblings study (or sibship) design or sibling control analysis. Briefly discuss how sibling control analysis can be used to decrease potential residual confounding in observational epidemiological studies (2 marks). Note: your answer does not need to be related to the context of this study; rather, observational epidemiological studies in general.Briefly discuss the public health implications of the study findings for female UAE Nationals (or other female GCC nationals) (2 marks). Consider the public health interventions during preconception planning and the periconception period, the first antenatal appointment, and throughout pregnancy.Briefly discuss the challenges and opportunities for conducting this study in the UAE (or another GCC country of your choice; 3 marks). Consider the sources of data and linkage between registries/databases required for the exposure variable, outcome variable, and confounding variables.Answer:A confounder is an external influence that changes the effect of dependent and independent variable under a study. The extraneous influence of a confounding variable influences the outcome of an experimental design increasing the probability of producing inaccurate results. It was therefore important to control each confounder in the analysis to reduce the effect of the confounding effects on the study. Controlling each confounder during the study ensured that the results of the study reflect actual relationship between the variables studied. Confounding is a threat to the validity of inferences made concerning cause and effect justifying the need to control each confounding variable.
Answer:Evidence from meta-analyses and systematic reviews indicate that child spacing has effects on child outcomes. Preceding inter-pregnancy intervals that are 24 months infant mortality. Similarly birth spacing shorter than 36 months is associated with increased risk of child mortality under the age of five years. The effect of birth spacing on infant mortality was a potential confounding variable in the study of maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of infant mortality. Therefore, the researchers should have adjusted the odds rations for inter-pregnancy intervals to reduce the influence of the potential confounders on their study, promoting the validity of study results.
Answer:The study hypothesized that maternal smoking increased the risk of infant mortality. The smoking habit was measured through estimations done by calculating the population attributable fraction (PAF) using a specific formula. Most information on maternal information was missing during the study and therefore, the researcher had to rely on PAF investigate the number of infant deaths attributed to maternal smoking. PAF is a widely used measure in assessing the public health impact of exposures in populations and therefore is associated with valid estimates in various studies. Therefore, the study produced valid estimates on infant mortality rates attributed to maternal smoking. It is important though to note that PAF is based on assumptions that may be problematic observational data but is necessary for making translational inferences for public health.
Answer:The study found a strong association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. However, the authors agree that although they were able to adjust the BMI related risks for several maternal characteristics, they cannot exclude the possibility of residual social confounding. This suggests that there is a great possibility of information bias related to exposure variable which could have the strong association between maternal overweight and infant mortality. The fact that study did not control maternal smoking confounder provides the evidence that the study was influenced by information bias. Information bias is associated with incorrect estimation of the real effect of an exposure on the outcome. This could explain the strong association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality in this study.
Answer:The rate of infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality was higher from 1992-1996, as compared to the next years. In the early 1990s, antenatal steroids and surfactant had not been introduced. The therapies are effective in saving pre-term births. This explains why the infant mortality death was higher in between 1992 and 1996. Since then more research has been done on causes of infant mortality deaths yielding various strategies of saving infants associated the decline of with rates of infant, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. In addition, the uniform and free antenatal and paediatric health services have improved infant health reducing infant mortality over years.
Answer:According to the study, population attributable fraction (PAF) related to maternal overweight/obesity was 11% and 7% for smoking. This means that maternal overweight and obesity causes 11% of infant mortality while smoking causes 7% of infant mortality. Therefore, maternal overweight or obesity and smoking cause infant mortality. If the population was not exposed to these situations, that is maternal overweight or obesity and smoking, then the 11% and 7% infant deaths would not have occurred. This report significant too the population as it warns on negative effects such exposure to their health. The reported PAF shows that maternal overweight or obesity and smoking increases the risk of infant mortality.
Answer:Residual confounding occurs when a confounding variable is measured with some error or measured imperfectly. The adjustment using the measure with some errors does not remove the confounding variable effect completely. For example a certain study found that maternal smoking results in a lower risk of having Down Syndrome birth. Errors and imperfect measures led to the misleading conclusion. Residual confounding in this study, has a potential role of yielding misleading conclusions which can put the lives of mothers and infants at an increased risk of danger. Wrong conclusions drawn from erroneous and imperfect measure s lead to wrong interpretations which are associated with greater risks. A wrong interpretation can increase the rate of infant mortality instead of reducing it, the initial purpose of such studies.
Answer:The appropriate measuring of potential confounding factors apart from exposure and outcome in a study helps in controlling them in an analysis. A within-siblings study reduces the potential residual confounding due to the characteristics that remain fixed between pregnancies. Residual conforming occurs when there is a range of exposure. The limited range of exposure reduces the chances of error decreasing the potential residual confounding in observational epidemiological studies. Additionally, siblings in stable families share stable aspects of family context and half their genome. Siblings’ differences in family context are potential confounders that increase the potential residual confounding. The absence of such confounders reduces potential residual confounding in observational epidemiological studies.
Answer:The study findings indicate that maternal overweight or obesity contributes to infant mortality. For the UAE females, it is important to control body weight to reduce or avoid infant mortality. Although practices such as smoking are not common among these females, overweight and obesity are common and should be controlled to save infants. Various public health interventions are useful in reducing infant mortality rate. Before conception, women should ensure that they have the proper weight. After conception, women should attend an antenatal appointment and other appointments during the pregnancy period to be enlightened on what practices to engage in and which ones to avoid to reduce the risk of harming the baby.
Answer:In UAE, more hospitals and healthcare facilitates have been established enabling women to have easy access to healthcare. This means that majority of women have their information on exposure variable, confounding variables, and outcome variable in the hospitals. The documents give researchers an opportunity to conduct similar studies in UAE. Services such as the first antenatal visits, national identification numbers, and the register of the total population provide necessary information for the study. However, it is not long since women in this region started enrolling into higher institutions, therefore finding information on the level of education, a confounding variable can be challenging during similar studies.
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MPH MCH Course: Assessment Task One

Post-Course written assignment

Read the attached case study “Multi-Pronged Attack on Cervical Cancer Detection Seeks to Speed Detection and Treatment in Resource-Constrained Countries”.

1.Update the global burden of disease due to cervical cancer using appropriate metrics. The data shown in the cases study is from 2002. (4 marks)Answer:Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world with more than 14 million new cases reported in 2012. In 2015 cancer was responsible for 8.8 million deaths globally. Approximately 1 in 6 deaths in the world are related to cancer. Low and middle income countries experience around 70% deaths from cancer. One third of deaths from cancer are due to dietary and behavioral risks. In the US the death rate from cervical cancer is higher than before. In 2017, 77% black women died from cervical cancer while 47% white women died from the same condition. Estimates indicate that more than 12, 820 new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed and more than 4,210 deaths reported in the US in 2017.
2.What is the “gold standard” cervical screening method in high resource settings? (3 marks)Answer:Routine cytology screening of women is the gold standard cervical screening method in high resource settings. The method commonly known as Pap Smear has led to reduced cases of cervical cancer related deaths over time in wealthier regions. A precancer screening program that is affordable and of high quality has enabled people in wealthier regions to access earlier treatment which reduces deaths associated with cancer. The most effective way of reducing cancer deaths is regular screening associated with an early diagnosis that makes treatment easy. Women in wealthier regions access the regular screenings and earlier treatment reduces cases of cancer deaths.
What alternatives are there in low-resource settings? (3 marks)List three conditions for the effective use of new cervical screening technologies. (3 marks)List three challenges faced by the three “initiatives” described in this case study. (3 marks)Answer:Routine cytology screening is accessible to women in wealthier regions but not to women in low-resource regions. This explains the higher cancer deaths in such regions. In response the PATH, ACCP, CCA and other partners conducted various studies to compare a number of screening techniques that would be accessible and affordable for low-resource regions. The alternatives include cytology, HPV DNA test, and visual inspection methods with acetic acid (VIA) or Lugol’s iodine. The alternative screening methods aim at providing cost-effective, quality, and not too technical pre-cancer screening programs to reduce the high mortality rate related to cancer in developing the region.
4.How were these alternatives evaluated and what advantages are mentioned? (3 marks)Answer:The alternatives were tested in more than 20 low-resource settings around the globe. HPV DNA and VIA testing proved to be of special interest. The test found that VIA compares well to cytology in terms of disease detection sensitivity. The alternative has some advantages over others as it requires less training, equipment, and infrastructure. It also requires specialized personnel. Cervical cancer screening through VIA can be offered in developing regions with less equipped clinics thus reaching more people. Again Via provides immediate results meaning that women are screened and treated without having to visit another day for treatment reducing the number of people who miss the treatment. Alternatively, a new – low cost HPV test such as biochemical HPV screening methods designed for low-resource settings would be more effective than VIA or cytology. The most important part is that the methods must be simple to use, accurate, and affordable.
5.What were the requirements for the use of the new HPV-DNA test and how were these addressed? (3 marks)Answer:The new, low cost HPV DNA test had to be specifically designed for low-resource settings. The tests had to be accepted by women and by the providers, be relatively simple to use, be accurate, and affordable. Cultural sensitivities towards medical tests performed during the screening on the genitals or by male practitioners were of concern to women and therefore the testing methods had been accepted by the target population. Another condition is that diagnosis and treatment had to be possible during a screening visit. To achieve this, PATH developed partnerships with Digene, a commercial medical diagnostic company, and with World Health Organization to develop a technology that would be effective in bringing pre-cancer screening to women in the developing world. The partners developed a new highly sensitive HPV DNA test that is portable and yielded results in less than 2 and a half hours facilitating immediate treatment.
Answer:For effective use of the new cervical screening technologies there is a need for strong scientific and public health leadership through leading international organizations and health agencies. There is a need for sustainable political leadership and financial commitment for a comprehensive approach for appropriate vaccination and treatment of women. Third, there is a need for adequate partnership from diverse constituents of civil society, medical associations, governments, health professional, and donors to support a wider spread of access to the new tools reducing deaths related to cervical cancer in the developing world. These conditions among others will ensure that the new prevention technologies became available and effectively used in developing regions.
Answer:The three initiatives in the case study faced several challenges. For the case of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Protection, the groups were brought together by the interest of prevention of cervical cancer in the developing countries. However, lack of attention to the coordinated work for a stronger alliance led to frictions. For the START program initiative, and its sequel, QIAGEN faced a challenge to developbusiness model that allows the marketing of two types of HPV DNA tests. Medical communities also brought up a challenge. Many clinicians and researchers consider Pap Smear a gold standard and consider making a living from cytology. Many of them have not seen results of the alternative strategies forcing them to remain skeptical about the alternatives.
8.This case study was written in 2009. Provide an update for 2016. (3 marks)Answer:In 2016, cervical cancer still remained to be the most common cancer for women across the globe. Most diagnoses still occur in the developing world where cases are detected at late stages with poorer prognoses. Most women in low-resource regions still have difficulties accessing cancer screenings. Visual inspection methods of cervical cancer screening emerged as cost effective, safe, and effective alternative to cytology screening and can be administered to many women in the developing world. VIA and VILI were performed by nurses, paramedic staff, and midwives after a short competency based training program. Additionally, the visual screening provided immediate results supporting real tome treatment. This acted as an effective strategy for overcoming issues of non-adherence to follow-up visits.