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Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care

So as to understand various aspects of palliative, the primary goal of the same which entails preventing and relieving of suffering as well as supporting the possible quality of patients and their families’ life that is best for them regardless of the disease’s stage or need for different therapies needs to be taken to consideration. The care is both a system that is highly organized to deliver care as well as a care philosophy. It expands the disease-model treatments used as traditional remedies to include the objectives of enhancing life quality for the patient and his/her family. It also helps in optimization, helping in decision making process as well as provision of personal growth opportunities. This makes it possible to deliver palliative care concurrently with care that prolongs life as the main focus (Sulmasy et al, 2008).

Psychological Aspects of Care

Pertaining to this aspect of palliative care which also touches on Psychiatry, assessment and management is done on the basis of the evidence that sis best available, that which is applied systematically and skilfully. Still on this domain the criteria to be followed has to entail support and promotion of care continuity across the entire setting and throughout the illness trajectory. It is a routine to inform patients and families about and refer them to hospice and other health care resources that are community based. Policies that enable sharing of information that is timely and effective are also implemented. Where possible, programs for hospice and palliative care staff frequently participate in meeting held by each other team so as to promote professional communication that is regular. Collaboration and a care plan that is integrated on behalf of families and patients are in palliative care.

Social Aspects of Care

Under this domain, interdisciplinary evaluation that is comprehensive helps in identification of patient’s social needs as well as their families’, and then follows a care plan which responds to these needs at the most possible degree of effectiveness. In the criteria for this, the essentiality of their being skilled practitioners while assessing and managing children’s developmental needs is availed for paediatric patients and the adult patients’ children, as supposed to. Formulation of the social care plan is done from a cultural and social assessment that is comprehensive and re-evaluation and reflection and goals, values and preferences of the documents is set by the patient and the family over time (Rydvall & Lynoe, 2008).

Spiritual Aspects of Care

Under this domain, dimensions on spirits and existence are evaluated and responded to on the basis of the best available evidence which is applied systematically and skilfully. Over time, re-evaluation of the impact of interventions that are spiritual or existential as well as preferences for patient-family occurs with the necessary regularity, and then follows documentation. Care needs, concerns and goals that re spiritual or existential are addressed, then documented and support given for life completion issues in a way that is consistent with the religious and cultural values of the individual and family as well. When appropriate, referrals to professionals who have specialized skills and knowledge in existential and spiritual issues are availed.

Cultural Aspects of Care

Under this domain, the program evaluates and tries to meet the patient, family and community’s needs in a manner that sis culturally sensitive. Concerns and background of the patient’s culture and his/her need and that of the family are documented after being elicited. All forms of communication with patient and family are done in a respectful manner to their cultural preferences, with regards to disclosure, decision making and truth telling. Identification of cultural needs is then done by the team providing palliative care and the family which are addressed in the care plan of the interdisciplinary team (Preston & Kelly, 2006).

Ethical and Legal Aspects of Care

Under this domain, preferences, goals and choices of the patient are given due respect within the applicable federal and state law limits, within accepted standards currently in the medical care field, which forms the basis of the care plan. Incase patients are not in a position to communicate, the palliative program of care tries to identify directives for health care in advance, evidence of wishes expressed previously, preferences, values and the surrogate decision makes that are appropriate. They are then assisted on ethical and legal basis for surrogate decision making, up to and including patients’ honour referred to as substituted judgement, preferences and criteria for best interest.

Conclusion

In my opinion, so as to apply the core values of community respect and integrity one needs to understand the different aspects in operations of pain’s effective management and other symptoms of distressing while at the same time incorporate spiritual and psychological care, considering the needs of both the patient and the family. Other aspects to look at include values, preferences, culture and beliefs. Patient evaluation and treatment needs to be patient-centred and comprehensive with a focus on the family central role in decision making as is the simplest unit of the community. So as to ensure respect and integrity, a medical practitioner needs to support the patient and his family’s goals future goals, which include their cure hopes or prolongation of life as well as their hope for dignity and peace throughout the illness course, the process of death up to death itself. Palliative care requires a practitioner to provide adequate assessment and treatment of the needs that are complex for ill patients as well as their families. To achieve respect and high levels of integrity in the community, aspect of collaboration, leadership, communication and coordination have to be incorporated (Preston & Kelly, 2006).

References

Wheatley V.J, & Baker J.I.(2007). “Please, I want to go home”: ethical issues raised when considering choice of place of care in palliative care. Postgrad Med J. Print.

Sulmasy D.P, et al,(2008).Beliefs and attitudes of nurses and physicians about do not resuscitate orders and who should speak to patients and families about them. Crit Care Med. Print.

Rydvall A.,& Lynoe N.(2008). Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatment: a comparative study of the ethical reasoning of physicians and the general public. Crit Care. Print.

Preston T., & Kelly M.,A.(2006). Medical ethics assessment of the case of Terri Schiavo. Death Stud. Print.

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Disaster Resilience and Shared Community

Disasters have been on increase in the entire world. For instance, in the past 20 years, different parts of the world have been hit by disasters, either man-made or natural which greatly impact people’s lives and can also lead to numerous economic losses. In attempt to recover from disaster, community resilience can highly be of great effect, even more than other obvious factors such as poor or lack of infrastructure. Saudi Arabia has been among the worst hit by disasters as it is widely known for both man-made and natural disasters, despite there being areas that are volcanic and others seismic. Research has it that disaster cases have increased tremendously in Saudi Arabia since 2000. Cases of disasters such as floods have been recorded, mostly in areas such as Makkah Province that is highly populated (Raphael & Ma, 2011).

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Disaster refers to any serious disruption on the smooth functioning of a community or a society which causes large losses to human beings, materials, economy or the entire environment. These losses exceed the affected community’s or society’s ability to cope or come-back by use of their own, readily-available resources. It is therefore a function of the risk process which results from blending hazards, insufficiency and vulnerability capacity conditions or measure that helps in reducing the imminent negative risks or consequences. In general, resiliency refers to one’s ability to overcome all kinds of challenges that come on the way. They may include disasters, tragedy, life’s problems and personal crises. Disasters can be a challenge to every human population and adaptation’s aspect and in societal levels as well. It can also be at an individual or family life’s level across all cultures and nations. Resilience is further defined by a strong come-back from these challenges with more wisdom, strength and power. Disaster resilience refers to individuals, organizations, community and states’ ability to easily adapt and recover from shocks, stresses or hazards as a result of challenges without having to compromise on development’s prospects that are long-term (Alshehri et al, 2013).

Community resilience refers to a community’s sustained ability to recover from a disaster after withstanding from the same. Such disasters include natural or man-made disasters, economic stress and other pandemics. This represents a shift in paradigm in preparedness of public health emergency in putting emphasis on evaluation of the strengths evident in the community, not just vulnerabilities description (Folke, 2006).

Disaster resilience is very important in several ways. As evident from several countries that have applied disaster resilience before, the following benefits can be noted. It saves lives. Statistical evidence has it that prevention of disaster has assisted in limiting the loss of lives to disasters in many developing and developed nations. For instance, in Bangladesh, the fact that only few people were killed by the 2008 cyclone that the one in 1970 can be attributed to better prevention of disaster. It helps protect livelihoods and infrastructure. Evidently, the cost of damage on property from all disasters that have occurred between 1970 and 2008 is quite huge, but effective means of disaster prevention has prevented an upward trend of these cases. According to (Bosher & Dainty, 2011), disaster resilience protects social systems. According to a review of assistance by humanitarians given by the Red Cross after the 2004 tsunami along the Indian Ocean found that disaster resilience that is community based has a positive effect on resilience for the entire society through changing of behaviours and attitudes towards the same. It also helps in protecting the environment in that, increased disaster resilience has earlier on been associated with behaviours that tend to preserve the natural environment. For instance, in Honduras, building of resilience in the indigenous community led to slower destruction of the forest from 1994-2002. Also, at the Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopian borders, local approaches to resilience that are collaborative have helped in preservation of pastures and water resources. Finally, it also supports broader resilience in cases of violent conflicts or states that are fragile. The constraints and drivers that help in shaping resilience to hazards that are natural have large similarities to those that shape resilience for people in violent conflict or fragile states contexts. For instance, countries that have institution that perform well have a higher ability to both prevent disasters and reduce likelihood of conflicts that are disaster-related (Bosher & Dainty, 2011).

PPRR (preparedness, Prevention, Resilience and Recovery) can be applied in disaster reduction in psychological terms in a number of ways. To begin with, the prevention and preparedness bits are critical parts of the model for protecting communities, reducing impacts of disasters, thus reducing the costs for recovery of natural disasters. Both prevention and preparedness can be used in saving of money as they are critically important considerations when it comes to determining funding priorities for natural disasters. In (Folke, 2006), When better prevention and preparedness are applied at the level of an individual, household and community, it increases the resilience of the community, thus reducing the effect of the disaster, further lowering the social, psychological and monetary costs. Research has it that many physical and psychological consequences brought about by natural disasters are quite preventable. Therefore, the need to invest in phase activities with low cost preparation and preparedness arises alongside practice and other strategies that are low cost which leads to increase in benefits. It is evident that initiatives on preparedness and prevention have the capability to bring about a larger influence and cost effectiveness magnitude as compared to response for emergency and recover (Richard et al, 2003).

Conclusion

From the above, it is evident that it is every individual’s ultimate responsibility to improve and safeguard national resilience. Not even a single federal agency that owns all authority or responsibility of all skills that is appropriate in addressing this challenge that keeps drawing every day. The most important responsibility for increasing national resilience is accorded t the residents and their communities.  All levels of government’s guidance, input and commitment as well as from the private sector, community-based and non-governmental organizations and academia are all needed throughout the whole process of building communities that are more resilient. Increasing disaster resilience can therefore be said to be an imperative that needs every community member’s collective will as part of the nation. Even though disasters continue to occur every day, deeds that move the nation from disaster approaches that are reactive to proactive stance where there is active engagement of communities in the enhancement of resilience will lead to reduction of many of the wider economic and societal burdens that can be caused by  disasters. Practically, primary limitations of health departments in the implementation of resiliency within the community comes from challenges that come with the achievement of a cultural shift from a focus on bioterrorism and preparedness of individuals in orientation to an approach that is collaborative and community-partnered towards resilience (Alshehri et al, 2013).

References

Raphael, B., & Ma, H., (2011) Mass Catastrophe and Disaster Psychiatry in Molecular Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia. Print.

Alshehri, S.A, et al. (2013) Community Resilience Factors to Disaster in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Makkah Province in Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, UK. Print.

Folke, C., (2006) ‘Resilience: The Emergence of a Perspective for Social-Ecological Systems Analyses’, Global Environmental Change. Print.

Bosher, L.& Dainty, A.,(2011). Disaster risk reduction and ‘built-in’ resilience:

Towards overarching principles for construction practice. Print.

Richard J.T. et al.,(2003) Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is the concept? Environmental  hazards. Print.

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Communications and Media

The article majorly covers on how video games consume people’s time such that drawing the line between the most appropriate time for work and play becomes a great challenge. Video games have really transformed into work places, consuming much time which should have been set for job. Some of these video games however are side jobs, an alternative source of income to those who engage in them apart from being just a mere source of entertainment. The article clearly brings out the pros and cons of video games in the work place. The most notable pro is the boosting of team work as the work performed in the video games has evolved to be similar to that which is performed in the business companies. The games have played a key role in revealing certain humongous social trends the unclear cut line between work and play. The article disapproves the cultural stereotype that work and play cannot go hand in hand (Yee, 2006).

In most of the corporation worldwide, such as pharmaceutical companies, video games have been a source of career choice. Others include fashion design, architecture and bioengineering. Some raw materials such as minerals and chemicals have to be located by use of surveying tools that are geological then get harvested by use of installations that are purchased from other players that have adequate skills in architecture of the industry. Multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORRPGs) are a common genre of a video game. According to (Yee, 2006), this type of game allows players freely interact with each other as well as explore the world in three dimension graphics. From the article, it is evident that real life largely affects gameplay in an MMORPG and vice versa. Its positive impacts like promotion of team work is stressed like how the game helps in making of long term decisions about someone’s future business (Yee, 2006).

True to the article, video games teach people on how to be determined and diligent. In a game like Tibia for instance, a lot of work is involved, a game that is free or one can even pay for extra content. One does not actually the extra added content due to the widespread nature of the world and abilities provided. For instance, one can makes runes in a mage character which takes several hours per day so as to make enough for a profit that is worth the effort. All this teaches hard work and diligence. One can be a knight but has to train hard for many hours so as to acquire the skills high enough or be in a position to do anything that has enough fun. Just like the real life, MMORPGs are now becoming too much of work with little or unequal reward. In a game like City Of Heroes, a well thought out can be enjoyed with enough reward for equal effort made in the game. The basics are that one only needs to choose to look, irrespective of what a player needs. Changes need to be made many a times, with much concentration on the levelling bit. The game is quite easy to start or master (Yee, 2006).

MMORPGs being just a microcost of many other games, it shows how mankind is distracted from work’s true nature. The article however provides a solution that is corporate metaphors that can be sued in sidestepping the distractions while reveal the analogous work of slayed dragons. In (Yee, 2006), all this is in support of video games, however, the article needs to provide further information on the negative impacts of these videos games to the human brain such as brain damage due to addiction and distraction from doing more construction activities Contrary to the content in the article, one cannot avoid work in any activity that he engages in, be it volunteer work, playing games or any complex video game. Even though certain activities require less work done, such as television watching, due to the fact that at least some work is does not make these activities any less enjoyable. Games can also not be directly compared with work as games are more fun due to activities involved such as role playing, interaction with people, competitive playing and skills improvement as well as challenge overcoming. The article does not provide enough experiences and has a small experiences sample with little success in full evaluation of either side of effects caused by video games (Yee, 2006).

In conclusion, as evident from the article and research, there is over emphasis on work by the entire world. People work their whole lives just to make payments for things bought with money that is not even there. Currently, credit and loans are a common problem to everyone. Inflation is a common phenomenon and currency fluctuation is even worse. With money losing value, people have all reasons play online games. However, the time and energy spend on this game and other should have equal or close returns and addiction should be avoided at all cost. More research on the negative impacts needs to be done which will positively impact the world economy as people will concentrate more on activities that directly help the economy to grow and develop (Yee, 2006).

Reference

Yee, N., (2006) The Labour of Fun: How Video Games Blur the Boundaries of Work and Play, Stanford University, Sage Publications. USA. Print.

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Chipotle

Chipotle’s strategy for overall competitive advantage is based on differentiation. Unlike most large chains for fast foods, in-store workers for Chipotle actually cook and prepare their food inside the restaurant. The workers do not just assemble frozen the reheated then pre-cut, pre-cooked food, instead they chop the raw vegetables that are fresh with knives. They also readily cook meat that is raw and fresh on grills in kitchens in open air where customers can see the food that is being cooked unlike many other fast foods companies. This is how through differentiation, Chipotle had been able to achieve competitive advantage over its competitors (Singh, 2013).

The company’s generic competitive strategy entails low cost differentiation, best cost and focus. Due to the increase in demand by customers, the company is strategizing on opening additional warehouses, increasing the number of hired workers so as to run the warehouses and has also bought more inventories for sale. To reduce the costs, Chipotle’s has partnered with their distributors in the region for food, materials, and beverages, brokers in the real estate, landlords and farmers network. All these partnerships have enabled the company to succeed in the past and future projections as well. However, the company’s local farmers’ network has played a key role as the proposition for value has a direct relation to the company’s integrity and quality of products (Demodaran, 2012).

Chipotle has highly been impacted by the external environment factors such as technology, economy, and political, socio-cultural environmental and regulatory factors. Today, advancements in technology in point of systems for sale,  methods of payment, both online and mobile and the social media is also providing fast food companies with new methods of ales increment thus improving service to customers. Pertaining to the economy, in the fast food industry the overall economic environment has played a key role. Certain economic metrics and variables which can be termed as important to profitability of the industry are interrelated and co-dependent. For instance, the rate of inflation globally has led to rise in prices of food products by Chipotle, thus leading to reduction in consumption of fast foods by Chipotle. Political instability and lack of political good will has led to closure of certain Chipotle’s branches thus leading to decreased sales. Chipotle has however worked on strategies to curb these political drawbacks. Sociocultural factors such as over preferences by the society, aspirations, beliefs and concerns have greatly affected demand for goods and services, not only to Chipotle but entire fast foods industry. These social factors have proven to influence changes over time and corporations need to adjust continually to these alterations in the due course of their development (Fromm & Garton, 2013).

Factors that affect changes in the discretionary income of fast foods consumers and spending play a key role to the company. For instance, the overall economy’s health has influenced rates of unemployment, which in turn has greatly affected disposable income by consumers, consumer confidence and discretionary spending in the most ultimate manner. On political or legal environment that is ever changing, Chipotle has been greatly influenced as far as its profitability is concerned. In (Grant, 2010),Even though industry’s laws and regulations are designed to protect the consumers and workers at Chipotle, the requirements for compliance generally lead to an increase in industry participants cost. For instance, in the United States, majority of workers on hourly basis in the fast food industry do not get insurance benefits from their bosses. Cost in the industry has also been increased by changes in federal and local requirements for wages (Gamble, 2014).

References

Gamble (2014). Essentials of Strategic Management: The Quest for Competitive Advantage McGraw-Hill Education. Kindle Edition.

Fromm, J., & Garton, C. (2013). Marketing to Millennials: Reach the Largest and

Most Influential Generation of Consumers Ever. Print. Damodaran,A.(2012).Investmentvaluation:Toolsandtechniquesfordeterminingthevalueofanyasset.JohnWile&Sons.Print.

Singh, A.(2013).Is Leasing a Substitute or Complement to Debt? Evidence from the  Restaurant and Retail Industry .Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Print.

Grant,R.M.(2010).Contemporary Strategy Analysis: Text Only. John Wiley and Sons. Print.

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Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is a situation in which attitudes, behaviours and beliefs that are conflicting are involved. The result of this is a discomfort feeling which leads to a change in either of the beliefs, behaviours or attitudes so as to reduce the resultant discomfort and bring back balance. The theory further suggests that all human beings have an inner drive which makes them hold all their attitudes and beliefs harmoniously, thus avoiding disharmony, also referred to as dissonance. This explains why people experience cognitive dissonance. There might be changes in attitudes due to factors emanating within the person, with the principles of cognitive consistency being an important factor. Leon Festinger, who was the first proposer of the cognitive dissonance theory, which holds that a motive geared towards maintaining a cognitive consistency that is powerful can lead to behaviour that is maladaptive and sometimes irrational. He further argues that people hold much cognition about the universe and their person, such that upon them clashing, a discrepancy is created which leads to a state of tension, popularly known as cognitive dissonance. Due to the unpleasant nature of the experience of dissonance, mankind is highly motivated to either reduce or totally eliminate it, thus coming to a state of consonance or rather agreement (Tsang, 2002).

The main purpose of the study was to explore how cognitive dissonance comes about, through checking the effect of offered alternatives on preferences in both capuchins and children, when the experimenter choses a certain alternative against when he does not.

Research methods used to conduct the study were namely; experiments and data collection through experiments. Comparison between different variables was also done. Measurements on how quickly each monkey got into the testing chamber were also done so as to retrieve the M &M. The method was experimental in that the experimenter alternatively choses a certain option to check how it will affect both children and capuchins preferences, then again experiments when he chooses against the same alternative.

Participants of the study were 6 capuchins (Cebus apella) in the capuchin study. They were obtained from Yale University’s Comparative Cognition Library. The group had 2 adolescents and 4 adult monkeys which were tested by use of M & M’s candies as stimuli. In their recruitment, in the beginning of every test for preference, the monkey was contained in its cage at home, immediately outside a chamber for testing, and was given the go ahead to get in upon its wish to retrieve the M & M. For each monkey, at least nine colours’ preferences of the M & M that were different were evaluated. Measurements on the speed at which the monkeys entered the chamber for testing were also taken so as to retrieve the M & M. Each colour’s preference was then evaluated in 20 trials for each monkey, with trials for each specific colour being done for two sessions of experiment. The monkey participants were not compensated for their participation. However, the children were very much enthusiastic on playing with the stickers of different shapes, a reward for their participation as they are used in pre-schools as gifts for good behaviour (Tsang, 2002).

According to (Louisa et al, 2006),in the Child study, a test was done first in a choice condition, then in a no-choice condition, with complete ratings for similar numbers of triads. In the condition with choice, foam stickers of different shapes that were adhesive and commercially available were used. The experimenter began with familiarizing the children with the scale of rating, then explained to them that the face that has the largest smile corresponded to a liking that is great, the face bearing a straight line for the mouth corresponded to zero  liking, with intermediate faces corresponding to increased liking with an increase in the degree of smile. Three queries were then provided, from which the responses would confirm the comprehension of children on the scale. In the condition without choice, each child was given either A or B. A display of both A and B was done in the choice condition then gave instructions on giving each child a sticker to take home. Upon receiving the sticker, a choice was given to the child between the alternative that was unreceived, that is either A or B, depending on the one that the experimenter had given the child earlier on (Lieberman et al, 2001).

The conditions in the monkey study were similar as four conceptually similar tests to those given to the children were given to each monkey. Their testing was done inside a testing enclosure that was familiar to that of children; same dimensions. There followed a session for one choice then a session with no choices. Each session had 1 choice trial with phase one and two (Louisa et al, 2006).

In (Louisa et al, 2006),Stickers were used because in pre-schools they are often used as gifts for good behaviours therefore the expected results would be obtained because children were enthusiastic about playing with them. The M & Ms were used because monkeys have different preferences for colours, just like the M & Ms have different colours, therefore they would give desirable results for the study.

The study findings were that just like children, monkeys can easily change their current preferences to match with decisions they made in the past. The implication of this is that as both non-human primates and children derogate alternatives that are unchosen increases the probability that the push towards dissonance reduction is a human psychology aspect whose emergence does not require much experience. Further, the findings show that speculations that reduction in cognitive-dissonance is reliant on major processes cause further speculations that concerns the driving mechanisms nature.

There are several practical applications for the above mentioned findings for a parent or teacher who plans to change a young child’s behaviour. From the information provided in the article, the behaviour can be changed through influencing the young children to make certain decisions related to the behaviour as these decisions will always affect the child’s preference in the near future which greatly influences one’s choice of behaviour. Changing the child’s mind-set changes his way of thinking and preferences as well which all lead to behavioural changes.

At some point in life, I used to indulge in cigarette smoking due to influence and pressure from peers but with time, the fact that smoking leads to cancer and other related conditions made me refrain from the habit. The thought of cognition, that cancer made me think of how a high medical cost would be incurred for it to be cured, yet I could still change from the lifestyle. Upon this projection, the drive to quit became even stronger upon learning of many other side effects. I finally had to refrain totally even though initially I used to see it as a good lifestyle so as to fit in the peer group.

From the course work and case study in the provided article, it is made clear that, due to the fact that both non-human primates derogate alternatives that are unchosen, there is an increase in the possibility that the push towards the reduction of dissonance is a human psychology aspect that comes up without necessarily there being much experience. As made clear from the excerpt, similarities in behaviours between human subjects that are young and primates that are closely related clearly shows world cognitive systems that many people think are to be constrained in various development levels, may be even resulting to innate emergence. From the findings in the provided material, it has been made clear that certain mechanisms that lead to processes of reduction in cognitive-dissonance in human adults may come up due to systems that are both evolutionarily and developmentally consistent and that which exhibit consistency across ages, cultures and species as well as species (Louisa et al, 2006).

References

 Louisa, C. et al, (2006) The Origins of Cognitive Dissonance: Evidence from Children and Monkeys, Yale University, USA. Print.

Lieberman, M.D et al (2001). Do amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction? The role of explicit memory and attention in attitude change in Psychological Science. Print.

Tsang, J. (2002). Moral rationalization and the integration of situational factors and psychological processes in immoral behaviour in Review of General Psychology. USA. Print.

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Cities as Neighbourhoods and Communities

Community is a key agent of both social and Political change. The central thesis of this treatise is that community highly contributes to these changes. There are many political possibilities of Community, with Canada being a good example.

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The community greatly contributes to political and social change in many ways. For instance, in Canada and other nations, participation in local organizations which are formed within the communities has greatly enhanced individual experience as deeds of citizenship. Most notably the local organizations within the community has also provided associational experience which has encouraged the recognition of and common and public goods primacy, all of which are contributing factors to social and political change within these communities and the society at large. The most local structure of some of the organizations and their membership source is a major contributor to the fact that the local community organizations engaged people who have common values, thus helping them to support their identification with purposes that are common. According to (Jeffrey & Rupa, 2007), many people could have expected that they would, through association, build trust and lead to a joint expansion of the networks, both social and political. Social capital created through these organizations is a reflection of common interests and identity. The accumulated capital for instance in ancient Canada was used in funding activities of both local and even national political organizations. Most political leaders use the accumulated capital through community organization to expand their political territories. Differences, including differences in class, are in most cases secondary to aspirations and concerns that are common. Civic action, however often takes the form of the community’s protection (Allan & Bourne, 2006).

Local community organizations also encourage citizens to participate in nation building activities and feel as part of the larger nation. These organizations also form basis for larger political parties. Therefore, for any political leader or party to change its manifesto, it has to begin from the community level. Research has it that community organizations enhance civic participation (Edna, 2005).There is enough evidence that economic development efforts that are community-focussed have helped a great deal in providing, not only Canadian citizens but other citizens around the globe with needed services and commodities, liked them to financial services and credit sources as well providing employment opportunities and entrepreneurship. In the exploration of the interaction between building of the community and strategies for community economic development, researchers came across several examples where development strategies for business appeared to stimulate and benefit largely from efforts towards building of networks and social capital among upcoming entrepreneurs in the locality. They came up with the conclusion that, the community’s role in economic development will always remain limited by trends, actors and even policies that are beyond neighbourhood groups control. Discussed below are ways in which different interventions at the community level can lead to improvement in individuals, organizations, families and the community’s conditions as a whole. In a different case, an examination of whether and how community’s social capital impacts on the community-based efforts ability focussed on development of youths, education, employment and social services aimed at improving the individual’s and families’ lives (Edna, 2005).

A built community vision is one in which residents look out for both themselves and others as well, creating environments in which a critical proportion of residents is invested positively. It follows that in the due process of community-building, much focus is put on providing ways for people in the neighbourhood to have meaningful links with one another, thus bring about change when they have a common goal. Community builders, the main agents if both social and political change refers to professionals who are community based, working on bringing about sustainable and fundamental improvements world-wide in the targeted areas with most inhabitants as low-income earners. Instead of focussing only on interventions that are programmatic that have a direct impact on housing, economic opportunity and human services or safety, the community movements on social and political change are largely characterized by a belief that community change that is sustainable and significant can only be brought about through utilizing and developing the social fabric in communities that are targeted. The bottom line is that tapping into the society’s life is a major step in catalysing action that is collective, building of relationships that are collaborative among major members of the community and building capacity in the community (Steven, 2006). Community brings about social and political change in that, in its building, it begins with an investment in the social infrastructure of the neighbourhood.  Healthy and vibrant social interactions development in the community lead to production of conditions that are thought to be necessary for community organization participation that is more formalized and associations as well. Behaviours, attitudes and relationships that develop due to social interactions within the community are increasingly seen as a community’s social capital elements (Will, 2007).

Social interactions have also proven to be the building blocks of local social capital. Community networks forms an important dimension of social capital at the neighbourhood level due to the fact that they are resources for individuals and communities as a whole. For instance, neighbours often serve as support systems for each other, giving material as well as emotional assistances when other communities members are in need. Community members also serve as a buffer against isolation feelings, especially in large urban areas and cities. Neighbours and leaders of informal neighbourhood may give each other links to important information about organizations and services that are available both within and outside the community. In (Mohammad & Kumar, 2006) community members can also provide aid, in the form of day care or emergency help and may also join together to practise their political skills and also better their living environment quality. When community member interact on daily basis, they have the potential to serve as social support sources that are valuable, providing emotional and material assistance when need arises. Neighbours, many at times fill in the gaps that are left by poverty or lack or shortage of formalized services in a neighbourhood that is distressed and isolated. These day-to-day relationships are important resources, despite the fact that networks of similarly situated people that are dense; particularly the poor in the community may be good at helping others get by, instead of getting ahead. Social network within the community are largely associated with improved life for the residents, however, there is much evidence to suggest that social networks have a positive influences on dynamics for other communities.

Case Study 1

When reflecting on the North American indigenous and Palestinian exchanges, one can clearly see how these communities have contributed to social and political change. For instance, what occurs when indigenous Canadian nations and the United Nations join together with Palestinians so as to share what they experienced in their history and the realities of living that are contemporary as people who are colonized with one another? Evidently, such conversations have certain complication when one thinks about advocacy in both long and short term ways and for the solidarity role between people who are colonized in advocacy efforts that are broader. Just like two different indigenous people living on the lands that are now called United states and Canada who have inherited the colonization history that Is on-going, reflections on and a deeper analysis of the colonization occupations situation in North America and Palestine are done (Steven, 2006).

Case Study 2

The Canadian government role has changed as a result of alteration in community social and political structures. For instance, the governments have redefined their responsibilities to ones that reflect on the fiscal constraints and political ideas that are new about the state’s role, all this originating from the community. The government is also shifting risk back to individuals and families in the community. Research has it that eligibility rules for provincial assistance within the society have been recently tightened to encourage citizens to work and restrict access, mainly to those who are disabled and lone parents who have young children. Case loads of welfare have gone down by almost 600,000 since 1995 for two main reasons namely; increment in opportunities for employment and tightening of eligibility rules.  However, 1.7 million Canadians are still dependants on assistance from the society as their sole income source in 2004. Lone parents are even expected to work upon the children reaching the age of two, and benefit payments for lone parents falling well short of the required income to cover basics namely; clothing, shelter, food and transportation needs, which ranges from 48 % of the Canada Statistics for Low Income threshold in Alberta up to 70 % in Labrador and Newfoundland, all these changes emanating from the community level (Jeffrey & Rupa, 2007).

Conclusion

From the above information and case studies, it is evident that the community plays a key role in both political and social change, not only in Canada but in many other parts of the world.

References

Allan,W.,& Bourne,L.,(2006)“Ghettos in Canada’s Cities? Racial Segregration,

Ethnic Enclaves and Poverty Concentrations in Canadian Urban Areas,” Canadian

Geographer. Print.

Jeffrey, R.,&Rupa B., (2007) “Racial Inequality, Social Cohesion and Policy

Issues in Canada.” In Keith Banting, Thomas J. Courchene and F. Leslie Seidle, eds.,

Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada (Montreal:

Institute for Research on Public Policy).Print.

Mohammad,Q., &Kumar,S., (2006) “Ethnic Enclaves and Social Cohesion,”

Canadian Journal of Urban Research. Print.

Will,K., (2007) “Ethnocultural Diversity in a Liberal State: Making Sense of the

Canadian Model(s).” In Keith Banting, Thomas Courchene and Leslie Seidle (eds),

Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada (Institute for

Research on Public Policy, Montreal). Print.

Edna,K.,( 2005)“Immigration, Civil Liberties, and National/Homeland Security: A

Comparison Between Canada and the United States,” International Journal, vol. 60/2

(Spring).Print.

Steven,W., (2006)“The Institutional Context of Tolerance for Ethnic Minorities: A

Comparative Multilevel Analysis of Western Europe,” American Journal of Political

Science. Print.

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Gothic Cathedral

The great height and scale of the building is similar to those of the cathedral churches build in the 1200s in France. During this period the apostles were place hierarchically above the Old Testament prophets and as a result priesthood was highly upheld.

The large windows in this image purposely were to allow more light into the building. Lots of light in a place had a symbolic value to the 13th century audience as it was associated with good deeds and holiness.

The decorations on the anterior windows are more of the cathedral churches in France during the 13th century. The images were repetitious and they were to be painted on the windows in such a manner that the images would have sufficient power to dominate the interior from their position over seventy feet above the heads of the viewers.

In this image, a sexpartite design is used in order to further spread the vault load. This form of design was purposely to use the space that initially was being used to support the load for more load in this case audience.

This image has a four-story elevation and columns which are slender at the chapel’s entrance. Drum columns with applied colonnette which is single support the arcade to the front as well as triforium that is blind and double flyered tall clerestory that is born by the coulees that are powerful. This attributes it to the 13th century cathedrals in France.

The roof in the image has vaulted ceiling a feature of the 13th century structures in France.

Image seven

The image is an example of the Gothic architecture. It is similar to the design in the United Kingdom. The image shows the interior of the structure at it point of entrance.it shows similar characteristics of the choir position in the early England cathedrals.

The structure has a lengthy nave a feature of the 13th century structures in the United Kingdom. Some cathedrals in England were noticed to have the longest naves at those times.

The style of decoration is that which prevailed in east about the close of the twelfth century, when this part of the tower was completed. The decorations look wooden. The Gothic structures in England during the 13th century were characterized by decorations out of trees.

At the entrance of the pictured structure you notice an open space with light. The Virgin Mary cult arose in the fourteenth and fifteenth century. In her honor, chapels many cathedrals and churches were added as well.

The pointed arch technology was highly utilized by the vaulted ceilings that were irregular for spreading weight that caused great force from floors on top. The magnificence and height impression were provided by the arch as well, which gave the ceilings that were vaulted a elegance and grandeur feeling as evident from the image.

The magnificent screen at the end of the nave is a characteristic of the 13th century architectural designs in the United Kingdom.

The walls are filled with colorful paintings; the windows are filled with the fine stained glass. The window in this image is large enough to emphasize on light.  Interiors that were airy and windows that were bright as well as churches and castles’ transformation was that generation’s architecture feature.

Image eight

The image shows features similar to the early structures erected by the Cistercian monks of England in the 13th century. It is during this period that the French gothic style of putting up structures was influential across Europe.

The image has sculptures that are that are engraved on the walls. In the east of transept, there are bays of choir that extends to the transept. This concept came from England where it was mainly practiced. Ambulatory has scalloped walls that are radiating. Each of the chapels has a round shape that is dome like and a lower ambulatory so that clerestory that is above the chapel.

The image is similar to the exterior of the east window of ancient structures of worship build in England.

The structure lacks triforium, though has a gallery that is quite narrow and a triple lancet windows clerestory that ran above each arcade’s bay surmounted it.

This portion of the building has no roof and the windows have no glasses either painted or plain. This was to facilitate lighting in the entire structure since the structure seems to have been built during the cult of Virgin Mary.

The 13th century structures in England were characterized by having vaults that were spherical and dome shaped, but they were not of complex shapes. The arches of the Bay had three different designs and they were handled properly by the varying steepness that was formed by the arcs. This structure in the picture shares the same features.

Initially there was a direct springing by the vaulting from the arcade’s top.After its destruction, it was then rebuilt in between the year 1192-1210. This rebuilding started with “little St Hugh” and transepts in the eastern. New transept, nave and aisle were re-roofed with line materials that enriched it with admirable decorations.

Image nine

The structure pictured is dated in the 14th century. It can be traced to England. The part captured by the image is the main entrance of the church.

The windows of the aisle, the windows of the clerestory, and the arch of triforium have round arches which are double pointed and appear in vaults and galleries.

 The vaulting originates from the sexpartite but was later rebuild in quadripartite. Over its vaults, it has medial rubbles that are more complex and curved. 

 The interior has transition four stories. This includes clerestory, triforium, gallery arcade and the aisle arcade. The elevation springs from the ground. There are aisle arched, triforium, upper clerestories that extend to the floor.

The building’s L-shaped feature dates back to the 14th century structures of England.

The originality of the buildings identity could have occurred at a time in the history of England when such structures were converted and owned privately. After that period reconstruction was needed and this gave the structure a new look.

The structure has pointed arches a feature of the 13th and 14th century architecture. The purpose of this style of building was to contain the heavy ceilings and as in the image above the arches allowed the buildings to be taller than the initial pillar structures.

Image ten

The presence of the cross at the helm of this structure makes the time associated to its construction different from the previous structures. In the past centuries before the 18th century the most common places of worship were the synagogues. The churches came up with the cross symbols at their helms. The pictured structure can be related to the France structures of worship in the 18th century.

The picture portrays the exterior of the backside of the building.

The structure pictured has short naves and two aisles covered by ogiviol barrel vaults just as the initial churches in France. The walls have few decorations of flowers which are made on the windows. The walls unlike the previous structures are massive.

The crossing is surmounted by a tower; two smaller towers are also at the sides of the main facade. There is an effective spreading by the buttresses that are high of their new designs weight, taking off the walls their weight, then directly transferring force to the ground. However, the most notable thing about the flying buttress is its decorativeness just as evident from the picture.

Apart from just being a support that is so simple, many at times, buttresses were designed elaborately and with extreme decorations. Their appearance gave an impression of darting and sweeping around every building, which further gave a sense of movement and of a missing grandeur from other architectural designs from the past.

Height was one of the fundamental features of the gothic architecture. Building techniques that were new such as the below detailed flying buttress made it possible for architects to spread the taller walls’ weight and towers that were loftier. Shown from the image is such kind of architectural characteristic of the gothic style.

Works cited

Athenapub.com. (2016). Amiens. [online] Available at: http://www.athenapub.com/14Amiens.htm [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].

Britton, J. (1835). The architectural antiquities of Great Britain. London: M.A. Nattali.

Hourihane, C. (2012). The Grove encyclopedia of medieval art and architecture. New York: Oxford University Press.

Reims-cathedral.culture.fr. (2016). Notre-Dame Cathedral of Reims. [online] Available at: http://www.reims-cathedral.culture.fr/plan-elevation.html [Accessed 22 Mar. 2016].

Smith, A. (2016). Netley Abbey: Patronage, Preservation and Remains. 1st ed. [ebook]  [Accessed 25 Mar. 2016].

Fearn, K. (2016). MEDIEVAL AND LATER WOODWORK FROM THE CHOIR IN ELY CATHEDRAL. 1st ed. [ebook]

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Indochina

Indochina, a region of Southeast Asia had countries that provide big opportunities for growth for businesses world-wide. When conducting research in emerging markets like Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, all of which are in Indochina poses great challenges for companies. However, in the process of decision making in these markets, potential risks are imminent, much of which are caused by information of poor quality which forms the basis for decision making. When the quality of the market information is enhanced, its great importance to the marketing managers is easily noted. There has been an increase in the significance of these emerging markets in the business world, more so, in the marketing research internationally among the significant challenges that these companies face in Indochina include; Cultural differences, accessibility and legislative and political issues. These being among the generic market research challenges In Indochina are discussed below in depth. This paper also contributes to the literature body that is limited on academics on research on market in markets that are emerging, with much focus on the less developed countries of Indochina mentioned above (Green, 2011).

Body

Cultural differences

Social cultural factors pose a great challenge in market research in Indochina. These countries contain some of the globe’s gap between rich and poor divided, which has implications in terms of rates of literacy and education variability. This further gives an explanation on why interviewing on face-to-face basis is the most preferred design of collection of data. Discussions were also held on the range customer groups that are hard to reach’s as to access a society’s strata that is more affluent, interviewers in this part of the world need to overcome high security levels that involves communities that are gated, compounds that are secured and security guards. In (Greene, 2011),regardless of standing by the society of many potential respondents, there have been signs of wary of allowing strangers into their homesteads to carry out interviews. In suburbs that have many cases of poverty and towns that are shanty, which typically provide homage to the largest proportions of population in urban centres, lawlessness and lack of security has become a major concern with regard to safety of the interviewers. In such locations, interviewing at some time will cease well before the night gets in and support acquiring from the community members within the locality may be of great necessity. In combination with very urban road congestion that is very significant can be hampered severely, leading to increment on costs and durations of projects (Burgess & Steenkamp, 2006).

In addition, use of many languages has added to challenges in research conducting. Indochina countries have typically many languages and tribes. Despite this wide range of languages in these countries, questionnaires can hardly undergo translation into more than just few languages, which gives an illustration on meaning lose challenge that is currently on-going. Some Indochina languages have also proven to be very verbose, with some resulting in a questionnaire that is translated, which is significantly longer than the original version. This is a crucial consideration is design for research as reliability of survey is affected adversely by length of the interview. Another cultural theme that affects smooth flow of the research process is that some communities in Indochina view research with a lot of suspicion. For safety’s sake and enhancement of rates of response, interviewers need to be from similar tribal/social group. While the main aim of agencies is to maintain a good interviewers mix, this is not all the time easy to implement as due to the endemic challenge caused by nepotism in some parts of Indochina. Another challenge caused by culture is related to the frequent lack of knowledge by spouses to know the earnings by each other. This usually causes challenges for research on consumers as income by households is a frequent key indicator in models for segmentation, which is well utilized in selection of respondents for quotas sampling (Nigel, 2010).

                                                            Accessibility

Challenges brought about by accessibility have already undergone allusion in relation to environmental, socio-cultural and legislative dimensions, an issue which also has significance in its infrastructural relations. Indochina markets, more so, the ones outside the capital cities have very poor infrastructure. Samples obtaining that are representatives of various geographies can be hampered severely by networks of roads that are poor, lack enough flight services that directly link between major cities and the large distance that is involved. Limitation in infrastructure also affects the ability of the research agencies to operate as a result of cuts of power and prices utility that are ever increasing. Low penetration of internet, telecommunications that are poor and media levels that vary in their usage put restrictions on data use of methods for capturing that are differentiated as well as the effective communication ability with teams in the field. Again, this drawback helps in understanding why interviewing on face to face basis is mostly preferred for most Indochina surveys on consumers. Security and safety are also major concerns in specific areas. For instance, while many facilities and services can be allowed to get in many countries in Indochina they many at times come at a premium price(Kotler & Gary, 2007).For instance, technology, business and computers services are all more expensive in Indochina in comparison to markets that are developed already. In Vietnam for instance, public investment in infrastructure has been on neglect for many years. The economy has been in a position to grow despite bottlenecks in infrastructure, but there is a great fear that as activities concerned to the economy expands, the drawbacks will definitely get worse. Power shortages, water supply that is insufficient and poor transport and communication systems include some of the major reported systems. Unless there is an effort that is concerted towards improving of the infrastructure, Vietnam’s economic growth would have lots of impediments, most probably leading to its cease. In Cambodia for instance, there are only thirteen usable airports but only six are functioning with runways that have permanent surfaces. Services for telecommunication are barely adequate for requirements by the government and virtually are non-existent for the public in general (Phillip, 2008).

Legislative and political issues

To begin with communist bureaucracy, common in Vietnam, a country in Indochina has been a great obstacle to market research. Countries in Indochina are undergoing political and economic instability. Senior staff of well-known agencies in these countries has all co-ordinated multi-country studies in Indochina, where data collection occurs simultaneously across many markets. All these have experienced difficulties as a result of disruption from conflict and political instability. This has often resulted in delays, bringing about the need to amend the geographical zones, whose sampling is done, then follows project postponement, or even cancellation. Indochina has most of the globe’s high inflation rates and fluctuations in currency that are substantial are also common in countries in Indochina. These economic factors which are tied to Indochina’s political structures have created drawbacks for the senior staff in the research agency in terms of accurate prediction of costs incurred in the projects and budgeting as well. On legislative issues, inconsistencies and variations in legislation are a key factor that created lots of problems for research agencies that work in Indochina. According to (Diaz, 2013), Countries in Indochina require permits from the government to conduct research in the market. Some like Vietnam need permits that are for individuals for every project on market research as well as research instrument copies before approval is granted, a situation which not only adds to times that are leading in the project but also enhances creation of clients’ confidentiality concerns. Give the spoke and hub nature of the market structure of market research in Indochina, projects frequently need travelling of agency staff from the offices of central research to train and brief teams in the locality. Application of Visa can also lead to addition to length of a project and in specific situations a wrong visa can even lead to more delays, local labour laws infringement and staff incarceration. Upon interviews, the senior executives all showed consternation due to the taxation laws that are ambiguous and very complicated, prevalent in the Indochina countries. In particular, this is in relation to tax payments being withheld for studies based on multi countries. In certain cases, there has to be a double pay of taxes, both in the nation where the specific agency has basis and also in the country where conducting of research is done (Achrol & Kotler, 2012). Difficulties are encountered in the due course of  are transporting research materials across the  borders. Previously, Indochina has been performing poorly in rankings for global corruption and the corruption potential is factored in, the drawbacks that are legislative in nature become even more challenging and a bit more dear to deal with. In Vietnam also, the country just like the others has realized the need to reform its legal systems which will support the reforms made in the economy. It has made arrangements to enact the necessary decrees and laws in areas such as banking, contracting, and laws on foreign investment and property rights as well. However, certain research agencies have realized that these challenges currently encountered are due to inconsistency and uncertainty in the interpretation of these laws (Craig & Douglas, 2000), different marketing research authorities in the government implement policies in accordance with their own interpretation without thorough consultation with other agencies across the countries. This leaves respondent across Indochina con fused thus reluctant  in giving consumer related information and data necessary in marketing research (Vikas, 2015).

Conclusion

Today, research on marketing and businesses operate worldwide; therefore researchers and practitioners on marketing need not to ignore the above three discussed challenging factors. Every day, changes are also occurring virtually in all personal and business aspects of life. These changes, not only in Indochina are getting played out at rates which are different in various parts of the globe. Against such kind of a back drop, researchers on marketing are every day being challenged to carry out research with the highest quality possible in multiple settings that are diverse. Marketing researchers face these challenges which are multifaceted and all related to how and where the research will be carried out, who are the potential respondents and which tools and techniques will be used. Upon understanding these, the above three challenges among others will be dealt with (McDonald, 2007).

References

Achrol, R., & Kotler, P.,(2012)Frontiers of the marketing paradigm in the third millennium. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science . Print.

Craig, C. S. &Douglas, S. P. (2000), International Marketing Research, 2nd Edition. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Print.

Burgess, S. M.,& Steenkamp, J.,(2006) Marketing renaissance: How research in emerging markets advances marketing science and practiceInternational Journal of Research in Marketing. Print.

Greene, W. (2011). Econometric Analysis. (7th ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Print.

Nigel,B.,(2010) Marketing Research. Tools and Techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Print.

Kotler, P.,& Gary,A.,(2007) Principles of Marketing Pearson, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Print.

 Philip,D., (2008). McDonald & Wasko, ed. Distribution and Marketing in Contemporary Hollywood. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Diaz, C. A. (2013). “Assembling Market Representations”. Marketing Theory. Print.

 Vikas, M.,(2015)Qualitative Research for Customer-Focused Insights. Print.

McDonald, M., (2007), Marketing Plans (6th ed.), Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann. Print.

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MARXISM, FEMINISM, POSTSTRUCTURALISM

The gendered form of the family has been used to better understand how domestic labour has to be defined. In fact the gendered perspective is what most scholars have argued on when discussing the role of women in the social production process. However with or without gender, the connection between capitalism and the family as such is seen to be a one that is disputed and debated even now. In this context this essay discusses three different readings. One of the readings analyzes the connection between domestic labour and capitalism. Here the domestic labour processes are presented by author Vogel (2000) in a way that there is no rational reason to add gendered reasoning’s. The second is that of how social classes and oppressions are better understood by Marxist framework. Here the work of Gimenez (2005) is presented. Then the work of Brenner is presented to highlight why it is necessary to understand the significance of the women’s role in a capitalist society as it would help to economically free the women.

Capitalism and the Social Feminists

            Capitalism and family can be described in a connective perspective as Vogel (2000) presents it. Domestic labour in which women were involved was theorized from as early as the 1960s into the 1970s. This domestic labour was classified as the work within one’s household, the childbearing and rearing work.Social feminists attempted to study this as embedded within Marxist political economical framework. This form of an understanding was actually considered to be effective towards understanding how women and their diverse activities within the household were actually contributing towards society’s interests and assets. Women’s liberation was a much researched notion then and this was also radical feminists also adopted much of the Marxist concepts without much ado.

            A range of formulations and writing were hence born and this was seen to inter-mingle both Marxism and feminism. The feminist perspective is hence one way to represent how Capitalism and family could be connected. However by the end of the 1970s there was more of an interest decline when it came to labor theorizing and in this context the author presents why the challenges representing the historic capitalist society in a gendered version could have contributed to the decline. Vogel (2000) presents that there could be a challenge at the concept level itself. Primarily the concept of domestic labour was mainly rooted in the liberalization and the feminist movement of the 1960’s. It was a concept that was formed in Britain and very soon came to be a theory for representation of women on a theoretical level as one who did the housework, child rearing and more. At the concept level in the connection of domestic labour and capitalism, the family households were seen to be the sites of production. What was being produced was that of work output in the form of the making of good citizens, their nourishment in the form of child rearing and more. However this is a very intangible way to represent the goods of production. Where the household is the production, then it can be said that the work being done are actually labor processes. Here the definition is very much tangible, however when it comes to the product of the labor processes, there are not much tangibility. Does the product have a value become a big question, as it is only with the value that the product could be viewed in the capitalist chain? In this context there arises many other questions in context too; the prime of them is on how the value should be determined, and how the product would be viewed when it came to modes of reproduction for the product. Here therein is a very conceptual level problem in understanding how domestic labour could be traced back to capitalism. The very meaning of what domestic labour was was also quite fluctuating. People could claim that it could mean an extension of the act of procreation and in which case should it be paid labour or should it be unpaid? Alternatively which form of works should be considered under paid labour, would it include child care in general or would it only pertain to housework that helps rear the child? These are some questions that could not be discussed or explained with only the feminist or the economic perspective. Here there needed to be include many more elements such as the psychology of child care, the involvement of the mother in the rearing of the child and more. Ideological, political, social and other agendas come into play.

            The second most important challenge was how the women’s liberationists found the abstractness of the concept. For them to use the concept in social-political debates they needed to have a more defined concept. This was what led to them abandoning advocating for the role of the women in capitalist society. Here they essentially shifted from attempting to define house labour and women in the Marxist framework. Vogel (2000) however argues that this was an approach with an epistemological orientation. What author means here is that theory was interpreted in a one-to-one meaning with that of the empirical. Theory however cannot be explained in a one is to one relationship, it is a broader intellectual representation. In this context it becomes necessary to analyze for how other literatures argued about the domestic labour context in Marxian framework and not just the feminist perspective. In his presentation of a Marx framework, Marx does not present a concrete society as such. The capitalist mode of production is also presented in a very abstract way, there is no connection to a pure state. A concrete reality was established by taking up examples such as England, France, Russia, etc. In this context Marx framework is as abstract as the concept of ‘domestic labour’ that feminists and others tried to define. The author states that theory should hence be used as a lens to interpret or to define things and should not be used as a direct link to reality or some empirical formation. Applying the same to domestic production, author Vogel (2000) presents that the feminist perspective could be just as comprehensive in presenting a connection between capitalism and the work women did in their households. The author acknowledges that the challenge here was to present the family work as a labour process.

Labour Power, Reproduction of Labour Power and Capitalism

            In using Marx’s framework, the author primarily considers what could be two deviations. One is that of the labor power which is often defined as the capacity that is exerted by an individual to make something of value that can be used or exchanged for something else. This labor power will actually go down as the people that labour are humans and hence there will be some amount of wear and tear when they work. This will hence affect the term which is called the reproduction of labour. How can there be a perfect reproduction of labour when there are some processes that are constantly being brought under wear and tear, in the long run this degradation will bring down the reproduction power. The author presents this and other similar divisions of labour processes to establish the connection between family and capitalist society better.

            Applying this degradation of the labour power within time, the author describes what could be the case in a class divided society. In such a society it can be said that the classes that are dominant will use the labour power of those classes that are recessive. However be the social structure, Marx has only considered how labour power was essential to a society, he has not presented for what the labour power would degrade with time. Marxian framework however discusses that nonworking members have to be replaced with the working members as a form of replenishment. Primarily the author presents how direct producers will need energy to come back to work and here they need some daily activity that could give them this energy. Secondly activities are needed to help the non-laboring members of society also. These are members that are either sick or are old or too young to work. Lastly it is necessary to have some form of a replacement process that will ensure replacement when a laboring individual is taken out of the labor force because he is infirm or when a replacement is necessary because an individual of the labor force died. These three activities are essential to production. Production as a social process will not be kept without these three processes. That these processes are required to maintain the social production has been seen in societal activities. Countries that need workers, have not only brought in the workers that were needed, but actually managed to transport the families of the workers itself. Here the families were necessary to sustain the worker and support the activities of the worker in the social production process. In fact the author argues that the presence of heterosexual family forms is very proof that this form of support is institutionalized.

            In the context of discussing capitalism, the author presents the key terms of what Marx presents capitalism to be. The primary of these is that of the understanding of what a commodity is in social production. A commodity is one that has a use value, as it can be used. It will also have an exchange value, which means the owner of the commodity might be able to exchange he commodity for something else of equal value. In the context of a worker expending labour power, Marx made two distinctions. One of them is what he calls as the necessary labour. Necessary labour is that work done in a day that will support the worker for their subsistence. On the other hand the surplus labour is that which is accumulated by the person who employs the labour. A profit driven system is hence created in a real capitalist society. On the other hand when a worker does more work for the same wages, his labour power is actually cheapened. When his wages are increase relative to the work he does then Marx defines this as relative surplus value. In all these definitions Marx considers individual consumption as it only relates to the whole picture. That the individual consumption could by itself be a very complex topic has not been considered by Marx. The individual consumption is not just the wages that a worker earns and consumes on his own, this is wages that is being considered for a family of women and people that are either too young to work or are too old to work. The author argues that Marx in no presenting the consumption processes in here has actually left behind a great void. The first component of necessary labor is purely wag related as Marx presents it, however Vogel (2000) presents the second component to be one that is not wage related. It is that component that will enable the replenishment of energy and people for the socialist workforce. This is what is referred to as the domestic labour. The author in presenting the domestic labour from the capitalist perspective as well as from a labour process perspective is actually able to present more quantifiable entities. As noted in the previous discussions on the challenges that feminist scholars faced when trying to explain away the abstractedness of the concept of domestic labour, there were many commonplace concerns. However the way the author defines domestic labour, the use value and the exchange value of the domestic labour actually becomes more quantifiable. In fact the author states that when it is defined in such a sense, it actually loses its gendered bearing, it can be taken to be fixed as a family concept only and not in any other context. “Defined this way, domestic labor became a concept specific to capitalism and without fixed gender assignment. This freed it from several common-sense assumptions that haunted the domestic labor debate, most especially the notion that domestic labor is universal and that it is necessarily women’s work”. Here the social and domestic components of labour are seen to be viewed in connection with the market. While wages that a worker earns in the market are seen be essentially connected to labour, the expenditure of the wages to replenish energy would by itself require some form of work in the domestic end, that which is seen to be additional labour. The food has to be prepared for the person to eat, so that they can be energized so as to go to work the next day. Similarly a child has to be cared for at home and must be taught skills that will enable the child to grow up to be an adult that would take the place of a worker in the socialist society. In being a more complicated concept domestic work is thus differentiated into work that has value and does not have value. In the former two elements of caring for workers and for children that are going to be workers there is a certain value sense associated, however in the context of caring for the infirm or the people who are too old to work, there is a value less dimensions associated with it. In either case, capitalist interest to reduce labor is seen to be felt. Where domestic labor is reduced then there are more workers available in the work pool of society. In the 19th and the 20th century there are many devices that have enabled the reduction of domestic labour. However the reduction of labour in the home has not actively increased the amount of people working outside as per the capitalist interests. However as the author portrays that although there are not much favorable outcomes with respect to capitalist interests there could be other benefits. In the spheres of production there is more equality and this by itself is a benefit. All women are seen to suffer in terms of equality in society. In a time where the role of the women was severely constrained to only the domestic front, such an argument as which is placed by the author gives their work a social capitalist value. There are obviously other dual positioning of factors that might seem to play a role here. But the pivotal is that the significance of the domestic labour gendered or otherwise is still recognized.

Capitalism and the Oppression of Women

            In ‘Capitalism and the Oppression of Women’, Gimenez (2005) discusses a way to understand the connection between family and capitalism. Where Vogel (2000) presented a feminist social perspective, here the author is seen to present a social oppression based angle to the connection. The basis for author to present such a perspective is that the Marx framework inherently presents a the foundation level inequality that might exist in society with respect to gender. The capitalist mode of production is seen to be the main causative agent here dictating that labour has to be sold, when most women are working in the domestic household not to sell their labour but do it as a duty. It is easy to understand why Gimenez (2005) presents that there is a structural flaw. The oppression of women is more than a side effect of the social production process; in fact it is rooted in the process itself. The author argues that the very nature of understanding the man versus the women mode might by itself lead to sexist ideologies. Relations have to be understood through their effects, and if such is the case then the means of exchange should also be presented and argued in the context of their effects. Things according to the Marxian way would be organized based on the value that is produced and the value that could be exchanged freely. In this context the domestic labour that the women might produce also has value. However Gimenez’s arguments are focused on the oppression perspective.  She argues that where the Marxian framework could be used to understand how the social inequality for women is rooted in production, it cannot be said that social inequality for women will improve once they are given the rightful claim in connection to capitalism. This is because of the concept of classes which could still be used to differentiate the form of oppression that women would face. The author presents here that women in different classes might face different forms of oppression. Here the author’s arguments are something that could be taken to be applicable in a realist sense. It does make sense that women in a more marginalized section of society might face greater oppressions than one that is a more elevated class of society. Taking the authors’ arguments in the context of this essay, it leads to the question of how women and their contribution to domestic labour might vary based on classes. If a connection between domestic labour and its inevitable benefits to social production in a capitalist society was considered such as how Vogel (2000) presents it to be, then one will also have to consider the impact of existing social classes, as social classes might change how the contributions work, or how they might impact on one another. This is yet another complexity added to the discussions.

Capitalist Globalization

            Brenner (2000) in her article discusses how women’s rights in political discourses are seen to be endorsed by many social political groups. Here the greater advocacy for women’s rights are seen to be  based on the fact that most women related agendas are only focused on reducing population or the fertility issues of women. However this is not the only necessity, there needs to be a shift from considering only this issue to better understanding of the economic situation of the women.  The economic situation of the women needs to be made better, it is necessary that there should be better conditions promoted internally. This has to be done by means of equal education, changes in family and property law, and more. Brenner’s presentations of transnational feminism presents the issues for how women are facing much labour issues also and which leads to the greater reduction in their economic value. Here the questions are whether the labour value of the women are in any context considered to be lesser that that of the male counterparts and if the domestic labour that women expend are being considered in nay context. While Brenner’s article in comparison to the article of Vogel (2000) does not present a way of connecting family and capitalism, it highlights the importance of failing to understand such a connection.

Conclusion

            There are continuing challenges in representations. There were obviously some continuing challenges in representations of the connections between family and the capitalist productions. These challenges were mostly present because of the feminists debate did not apply the Marxist categories correctly or simply dismissed theories that attempted to use them. Much of the epistemological perspective was not understood as it should be and in addition there were also concerns of the abstract nature of the presentations. In essence when feminism was used as a perspective towards understanding the connections of domestic labour and social production under capitalism, it was seen that there were many literature activist debates that seem to dramatically oppress such theories. Only in the 1980s and 90s there was a greater interest in understanding he domestic labour debates, early domestic labour literature was hence reused social reproduction came to be understood in its broader meaning. The creation and the recreation of beings so as to help them go onto another days work were considered just as important as the labour itself. Women’s life at the very core of capitalism was the initial projections but later the theory shifted to accepting domestic labour as something that need not essentially have a gendered context. While heavy burdens of the domestic labour are indeed focused on the women, it can be said that theorizing domestic labour into its rightful framework of social production and capitalism might also need to look beyond gender.

            This essay discusses more than the challenges of representation. It presented why it is necessary to view the domestic labour as more than a gendered perspective. This was because when viewed firmly from a gendered angle the significance of the work comes under greater debate. Furthermore a level of abstractness is introduced and also it becomes biased in becoming just pure feminist literature. However when presented as social processes that needs to be understood as necessary for the capitalist production it acquires more meaning. Secondly there is the need to understand the economic oppressions and the economic deficiencies that women face when the significance of their work in society domestic productions are not understood. Only in enabling better debates on these topics can women be helped economically.

References

Brenner, J &Holmstrom, N. (1983). “Women’s Self Organization: Theory and Strategy.” Monthly Review, 34, 34-46

Lise V. (2000).“Domestic Labor Revisited,” Science and Society, v. 64, n. 2 (2000)

Gimenez, M. (2005). “Capitalism and the Oppression of Women: Marx Revisited,” Science and Society, v. 69, n. 1

Brenner, J. (2003). “Transnational Feminism and the Struggle for Global Justice,” New Politics, v. 9, n. 2.

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Briefly describe Google, its mission, and its business model.

Google, Inc. is a Delaware corporation with its headquarters in Mountain View, California. Founded in 1998 by Sergey brin and Larry page. Google is an internet search engine technology provider, and has now grown into a large collection of product and services (google, 2005). Google initial support came from scientific community, in fact its initial success was due a mix of programming theory and network sociology. This method requires a highly complex mathematics and involves the integration of several classes of problems. And because of its novelty, Google qualifies as a genuine invention, which is why it interested scientific researchers and mathematicians. (Girard, 2005)

Google cofounders Larry page and Sergey brin have undeniable talent. They have self confidence and conviction of visionaries for whom making a fortune isn’t the main goal. Their desire is to change the world and is driven by a shared desire to improve internet searching. (Girard, 2009). The company’s mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful. Now there are a billion plus search queries everyday because everybody is a Google user (Vise and Malseed, M, 2005)

Google generate their revenue primarily by delivering relevant and cost effective online advertising, advertisers’ use AdWords program to promote their products and services with targeted advertising. There is thousands of third party web sites (web publishers) that comprise the googol network use Ad Sense program to deliver relevant advertisements that enhance their user experience and generate revenue (google, 2004). The “Google wave” is sweeping the globe and now it has become a threat to Microsoft. Google recorded strong results in the first quarter of 2006 whereby sales grew by 79% and earning rose by 60% from a year before, this indicates with no reasonable doubt that selling advertisement is Google’s wealth (Content, 2004)

Analyze the types of people that work at Google, with respect to the business culture of the organization. Indicate one to two (1-2) qualities that define a leader at Google, and determine the typical background of a Google employee.

Google works love their jobs at the Google inc., reason being they are fed excellently. Employees are entitled to free breakfast, lunch, and dinner, in addition to this, coffee and juice bars are scattered throughout Google campuses (smith, 2013). Mountain View campus holds the largest number of them. The food served at the cafeterias has become deeply entwined with the company culture and identity. The search engine, which prides itself as an innovator in technology, takes the same approach with its food.  Google supports local farming, organic produce, hormone-free meats and healthful eating. (Goo, 2007)

The employees at Google are not a worrying lot; they are concerned only with their work. Google inc. has pampered them with an array of benefit perks that has ensured that workers remain a happy and healthy in all aspects of their lives. Some former workers comment that free food and drinks were their favorite and most used perk at Google inc. (smith, 2013)

Leadership at Google inc. is very effective, Google has installed triumvirate as a top management, this comprises of a CEO who is also the Chairperson and the two founders (page and brin). In 2001, page and brin recruited Eric Schmidt in 2001 from Novell, Inc., by recruiting Schmidt, Page and Brin created a three-headed power sharing directorate. By all accounts and against conventional wisdom, this structure plays a critical and positive role. Its success is probably due in large part to the ability it gives to apply the brakes when success inflates the ego of any one of the leaders.

Google’s triumvirate structures also make reversing errors more quickly possible. Because triumvirate shares responsibility, when a triumvirate makes decision weather good or bad, the likelihood of one person taking the responsibility is significantly reduced

Secondly, a triumvirate leadership structure supplies multiple viewpoints, perspectives and expertise, which can help to reassure investors and customers that someone at the top of the of the company understand and shares their concern (Girard, 2009)

Identify two (2) examples of services or amenities that Google provides to its employees, interns, partners, and visitors. Next, examine two to three (2-3) ways in which such free services and amenities create an organizational culture that fosters creativity and innovation. .

Google inc. has provided its employee with many beneficial perks, the most cited perks of working at Google is food, employs are fed well. Working at googolplex, you can eat breakfast, lunch and dinner free of charge. Google has installed several cafes in various locations at the campus offering employees food at their pleasure and to their satisfaction. The food offered range from several cuisines while options range from vegetarian dishes to sushi to ethnic foods from around the world. (Strickland, 2015)

Secondly, Google offers day care facilities to its employees. It is rumored that Google day care facility sprung up in 2004. Then later Google ventured into a program with the Children’s Creative Learning Centers, Inc (CCLC), located at a school 2 miles always from the Googolplex which hosted this daycare service. Google named the day care program Kindersley; it oversees several day care programs and follows a play-based child care philosophy. Though this service wasn’t free, Google subsidized it so that most of its employees could take advantage of them. (Strict land, 2015)

Services and amenities available at Google have helped gougers develop a sense of imagination, whereby gougers have a feeling that they are living in the future. Google being one of the top technologies company in the globe, it’s obvious that its employees are at the forefront of technology, they get to use company services to get work done, (smith, 2013) Innovation is the most emphasizes culture at Google inc. since Google has some of the best and brightest IT specialists available to help other employees get their jobs done. Google has the Techs top, an in-house tech support, which provides gougers guidance with all hardware and software needs and solve problems (smith, 2013). Google ensure creativity by only recruiting the best, sits desire is to work with the best people in the technology industry, google recruitment  web pages abound with the mantras like “google seek to hire only the best”(Girard, 2009)

Discuss Google’s organizational culture, and determine whether or not you would prefer to work in this type of environment. Indicate whether or not Google’s company culture would help you to perform your tasks with a greater degree of creativity and innovation. Provide a rationale for your response

            The prevailing culture at Google is that of recruiting the best people in the industry,(girard,2015), its organizational leadership is comprised of triumvirate leadership which enables proper decision making process and responsibility in terms of handling problem and also an easier decision making, a wrong decision made can be easily reversed.(girard,2009) The Google company also is surrounded by people who are smart and driven, who will provide the best environment for learning, this is through working with the best colleagues(smith, 2013)

Google culture will help me perform my wok best; their services and high-end technology will empower my prowess and excellence in duty. I will make sure that I learn from the best minds at the company, so as to boost my ability and motivate me to up my game.

REFERENCES

 Girard B, (2005). The Google way. Paris, France: M21editons

Google, (2005), corporate information, Retrieved 11 December 2015 from http://www.google.com/intl/en/corporate/index.html.

Google, (2004), investor relations. Retrived 11december 2015 from http://investor.google.com/conductor.html

Vise, D, & Malseed, M. (2005). The Google story. New York: Delacorte press. P.39

Paul R. La Monica (2006), Google: on the road to $500. CNNMoney.com, Retrieved 12 December 2015 from http://money .cnn.com/2006/04/20/tecnnology/google/_analysis/index.html

Goo, S. (2007, Jan 23) “At Google, Hours Are Long, But the Consommé Is Free”, Washington post, P03. Retrieved 11decmber 2015 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/01/23/AR2007012300334.html

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Strickland, J. (2008) “How the Googolplex Works”, how Stuff works, Retrived 11/December 2015 from http://computer.howstuffworks.com/googleplex2.htm

Smith, K, (201, 3 May6) “Google Employees Reveal Their Favorite Perks Working for the Company”. Business insider, Retrieved December 12, 2015 from    http://www.businessinsider.com/google-   employee-favorite-perks-2013-3?op=1