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Human Resources in Today’s Work Place

Human Resources (HR) refer to the set of persons who form an organization’s workforce, economy or business sector. In the world today, Human resources departments play a key role in across business and industry in general. This dissertation provides a quick overview of various tasks that, demands and responsibilities that professionals in the HR department are expected to perform or may have to deal with. The paper also demonstrates various aspects of people management that need to be considered. In addition, it also points out some functions that those that are currently in role with responsibilities given to HR may not have considered. The role of HR or People management professionals is divided into various categories so as to emphasize on the broad demands that are placed on these professionals. The treatise also comprehends what most of what majority consider as HR responsibilities. Evidently, even though certain businesses can go outside the HR function’s circle and structure which is a different way from the usual, it is clear that this fact only gives a simple demonstration of the complexity and potential of the role. Generally, few of the many acts played on the HR scene are discussed in the article (Mathis et al, 2013).

Body

In today’s workplace that is ever-changing, at times it is hard to determine the role that each character plays. These people who staff and operate an organization are responsible for setting the stage and for finding resolutions to issues that come up within the work environment and also in helping with dialogs that involve ethical and legal issues. In the past, HR professionals were invisible, they were thought of being wearers of enforcers only, or pushers of policy, costume as they worked behind the scenes so as to make sure that records for personnel were orderly and proper administration of benefits was also ensured. This many at times led to a negative experience for workers. The policies issued and the manner in which Human Resources conduct business today diffuses through the organization. Workers may take their cue on how their jobs should be done from the HR right from the time the organization hires them. The HR departments also generally models how they prefer or deem appropriate for other individuals and department to act so as to create the most positive workplace culture as possible. In (Mathis et al, 2013), among the main duties of the HR today includes attracting and retaining high-quality professionals and promotion of culture which affects such functions. Several acts that best define the role of HR in the workplace are as follows; the first one is on information dissemination, interpretation and clarification. Nowadays, HR professionals can be and endless information resource within a firm. Policies interpretation and laws’ clarification is a duty of the HR professionals, who are a key component to movement of information that is most  applicable and accurate from worker to worker in the clearest, fastest and most concise manner possible. The second act is all about hiring and firing, whereby, besides reviewing of resumes and applications, the HR professionals many at times perform extra duties of assisting and mentoring applicants as well as making their resumes and cover letters to as marketable as possible. Under this Act, other responsibilities include interviewing, advertising, referring of jobs, drug testing and background checks as well as conducting promotions, , performance management disciplinary measures and development of the organizations (Bruce, 2008).

 In the third Act which emphasizes on compensation and benefits, workers applaud payday and everyone in the workforce looks forward to a proper compensation for their time and efforts and equitable and fair salaries, in line with competitors and marketers from the outside. It is in Human Resources where a company’s program for compensation and pay scale, opportunities for promotion and other monetary incentives are contained. The HR department is also expected to administer employee benefits, ensure workers safety and issues related to their wellness. In Act four, Training and Professional Development is a key responsibility for the HR. All organizations know that when workers are encouraged to do self-improvement through certain incentives, the organization benefits in a positive way. When employees are trained and developed professionally not only strengthens loyalty to the organization but also boosts productivity and boosts work skills (Bruce, 2008).It also gives the employees a sense of worth to the organization, fellow workers and themselves. Training, a common feature in modern organizations also reminds workers on their value to the organization which greatly boosts their confidence. It is also a gesture to the workers that the company is interested in their growth both personally and professionally. It is a cost-effective and simple investment with rewards that are immeasurable for the workers and the modern organizational structure at large (Timothy et al, 2005).

Conclusion

Even though human resources has many at times been cast as the organization’s bad guy, and in different scenarios, it is among the most important organizational department. Human resources act as stage mangers in today’s workplace, and without them, there would not be efficient running of the organization.

References

Mathis, R.L., et al,(2013) Human Resource Management, 14th Edition, South-West College Pub, USA. Print.

Bruce E.K., (2008). Managing the Human Factor: The Early Years of Human Resource Management in American Industry. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. Print.

Timothy, A. et al., (2005). Staffing Organizations. USA: McGraw-Hill. Print.

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What is the Purpose of War?

Many parts of the globe have experienced war at some point in time, be it civil, concurrent, corporate, and ethnic, guerrilla, and wars of independence, invasions, religion base wars and wars of succession. Arguably, war has both positive and negative impacts as well which are either short or long term. This brings about debate on the issue whether war is really necessary for the human society. One thing is for certain that, no matter how many arguments are raised in support of these wars; the negatives will always surpass the positives as the evolution that comes about through war is not worth the many lives lost, destructions and destabilization of both national and international peace, economy and social fabric. Many arguments in favour of war are just excuses as to why leaders should rage wars for personal gains at the expense of their subjects. The Among the key points as to why war might not be necessary are based on human beings; right to live, control of resources, solve conflicts and have faith in what they believe in (Montalvo & Reynal 807).

Societies that have been hard hit by armed conflicts pay a huge toll due to the loss of many human lives. These communities also disintegrate in many social, political and economic aspects. For instance, since the fall of the Berlin Wall, an estimate of more than four million people has been killed in violent conflicts .Further, children and women particularly suffer very many atrocities in wars and conflicts. In the last decade, an estimate of up to two millions of those killed in wars and conflicts are said to be children. Those seriously injured or permanently disabled has been three times as many. Many of them have been maimed in landmines with millions other psychologically scared by the violence. Due to the countless being coerced to witness or even pay a role in violence acts that are horrifying, there has been widespread trauma and insecurity. This future generation no longer has faith in its country or peers who subjected them to such harsh conditions (Montalvo & Reynal, 809).

Further, wars and conflicts extensive stress both psychologically and emotionally that is linked with attack and loss of friends and family, destruction of home and community and separation from family and friends. Many children later develop problems which include f, social isolation, flashbacks, increased aggression, future orientation that is diminished and depression. These mental and psychological problems persist even long the war has ceased, thus making it difficult for children who may form half of the population to benefit fully from education or play part in post-conflict reconstruction , hence hindering or  obstructing any conflict resolution efforts in future ( Montalvo & Reynal 799).

Another ruthless weapon of war s sexual violence as warring parties resort to sexual slavery and rape of women with an aim of intimidating, humiliating and terrorizing one another. This was witnessed in the recent conflicts in Rwanda and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Millions of children also suffer from disease and starvation due to war. There are high cases of malnutrition, death and diseases among young children which are attributed to war tactics that disrupt food supplies’ production and distribution. Displacement is also another effect of war as people are detached from their families and displaced by the stronger or superior party. This leads to the plight of refugees further making it a great challenge to control resources that they own or once owned (Montalvo & Reynal 814).

From the above it is evident that the net effect of war is to interfere with the peaceful, joyful land and destroys it, like in the case of atomic bomb in Japan. Landmines in many countries that are war-torn, including Croatia, Cambodia and Afghanistan have claimed one million people.

Work cited

Montalvo, J.,& Reynal, Querol, M.. “Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict, and

Civil Wars.” American Economic Review 95(3): 2005: Pp.  796-816. Print.

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Advertising to Children

Marketing ethics belongs to the category applied ethics, which deals with moral principles that are behind the specific operation and marketing regulations. Even though marketers identify children as consumers who are greatly powerful in the market, many cases of organizational practices that are unethical towards children have been reported. This makes advertising an unethical deed towards children as explained below.

To begin with, in the case of targeting vulnerable members of the society such as children, main products that are dealt with include; entertainment products, fashion ware products and unhealthy food. In (Lindstrom, 2004),Marketers take advantage of the fact that children do not have the capability of resisting or even understanding the tactics used in the market at a tender age. In this type of advertising, pitfall related to ethics in advertisement and promotional content include violent and sexual issues. Still in advertisement, among the mainstays of content used in advertising sexual innuendo is major. Another ethical issue is violence which is especially used in children advertisements. According to (Joseph, 2010), this encourages hostility among young children, an unethical vice in the community. There is also a major concern about the comprehension of children on advertisements, which further leads to concern on the negative effect of the commercial’s content on children. For instance, the advertisement on high sugar and high fat products that has been extensive has had negative effects on children’s health. This clearly shows that as children have different ability to process information meant for consumers, a lot of serious ethical issues which affect children negatively are raised by such advertisements (Margaret, 2009).

In conclusion, there needs to be a clear difference between social perspectives and the industry on the issue of ethics in advertising to children. If there really has to be ethical marketing to children

References

  Margaret,H., ( 2009). “Ethical Problems of Advertising to Children”. Journal of Mass Media Ethics: Exploring Questions of Media Morality. Print.

 Joseph,M., ( 2010). “Researcher Shows Negative Effects of Advertising on Children”. Fordham Legacy. Fordham University. Print.

Lindstrom, M. (2004). Brand Child: Remarkable insights into the minds of today’s global    kids and their relationship with brands (Rev. ed.).London: Kogan Page. Print.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Exporting

Exporting being one of the first ways many companies venture into foreign lands there are certain reasons as to why a small company would decide to export goods to another country. They include; these countries increase their sales potential despite them being small and not yet economically developed. Exporting also leads to expansion of the small country’s ‘pie’ that it earns money from, failure to which the country would be stuck in futile efforts of making money only out of the local underdeveloped market. Through exporting goods to another country, this small company will also incur increased profits due to the average orders from customers in the other country that many at times are larger than they are from local domestic buyers. Through making export sales, the country will reduce the risk that its companies may be exposed to as a result of fluctuating local and international cycles in business. Through exports, the nation’s production capacity that is idle will be put to work. In general, this is achieved through utilization of existing country’s machines, staff and factory in a more efficient manner (Mohan, 2005).

Despite the many advantages that a small company can accrue from exporting its commodities, there are also some possible pitfalls which could be overcome through implementation of necessary measures. They include; the firm being not well versed with the opportunities in the other country’s market and the country’s potential. This might lead to exploitation by the other country. To overcome this, the country needs to do thorough research on all economic aspects of the other country before engaging in any transaction, through economic analysts. Other pitfalls include; the exporting mechanics and complexities might be very intimidating especially in cases where the country has different business practices, legal systems, culture and currency from the home market. To deal with this, thorough research need to be done prior and ways devised on how to deal with these future challenges. Finally, the country’s exporters might experience many challenges while doing their business in the different country which can still be dealt with by use of proper economical mechanisms to deal with any barriers (Mohan, 2005).

Reference

Mohan,J.R., (2005) International Marketing, Oxford University Press, New Delhi and New York. Print.

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Competitive Advantage

Sustainable competitive advantage exists. Though with some hurdles, it has been made possible by the ever changing technology. Through information systems, a company can improve its relationships with its suppliers and customers as well whose zone is outside the value chain of the firm, but still belongs to its value chain which is extended where they are very critical to the firm’s success. Information systems in the new technology have enabled businesses to focus on market niche which has further enabled them to serve the market that is a narrow target better than its competitors. Another aspect of sustainable competitive advantage is strengthening of the intimacy with customer and suppliers which has also been made possible by use of information systems in business.

The internet plays a key role of providing a business with a competitive advantage. However, certain issues have to be considered so as to determine whether internet would provide a business with competitive advantage. They include; checking whether the management systems of the firm’s supply chain that coordinate resource’s flow into the firm as well as management systems of customer relations that also coordinate the firm’s sales and support the workers with clients. Both are two of the most common system application that is obtained from analysis of business value chain. Another issue to consider is benchmarking which entails the comparison on the business processes’ effectiveness and efficiency against various strict standards, and then carrying out a measure of performance against the standards. So as to determine whether the internet will provide a business with competitive advantage, it is necessary to identify the industry’s best practices through consulting other companies, government agencies, organizations that deal with corporate research and industry associations. Using these alongside other methods for solving problems ensures consistent and effective achievement of business objectives. After analysing the different stages in the business’s value chain, one can come up with information systems’ applications of candidates. One can decide on the one to develop first after having the candidate applications’ list. The internet can then be used to achieve competitive advantage through attainment of operational excellence, cost lowering, improvement of the profit margins and forging of a closer and tight relationship with suppliers and customers. If internet after all analysis has been done cannot be able to achieve this for the organization, then sustainable competitive advantage will not be achieved. If the firm’s competitors make similar improvements, then a relative competitive advantage will be achieved.

The advantage that the leading-edge retailers such as Wal-Mart have over competitors is highly contributed by technology, not exactly their management; however management plays a key role in bringing about sustainable competitive advantage. For instance, the company uses information systems to produce products and services at a relatively lower price that its competitors while at the same time enhancing the quality of its products and services. Through the new technology, Wal-Mart has been able to create entirely new markets. It has also formed new products, services and models for business basis as well as providing new opportunities for brands building with customer bases that are very large and loyal. These loyal customers have helped the business grow unlike their competitors who do not embrace the new technology, more so, in the field of information technology which has also helped it in advertising of new products and brands in the market to its large customer base. Generally, technology has given Wal-Mart a competitive advantage over its competitors, more so, those that have not been able to conform to the technological advancements.

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Crime Theories

The best theory for explaining crime is the strain theory compared to the Messner and Rosenfeld’s Institutional Anomie Theory and the Social-Disorganization Theory This theory best explains the causes of crime compared to the other two as it is a modified form of the above mentioned other two theories. The theory has significantly evolved from the other two since its beginning in 1938 with Robert Merton and the classical tradition. The theory encompasses aspects and ideologies from the other two as Merton; the theorist argues that criminal behaviour motivation emanates from the disjunction between aspirations that are socially prescribed and avenues that are structured socially for the realization of these aspirations (Burton & Cullen 19)

The theory can be easily understood and related to the American society and many other societies across the globe due to its simplicity in explaining the cause of crime unlike the other relatively complex crime theories. It is based on the fact that American Dream refers to goals and objectives that are particularly important to this very perspective. Frustration and production of a sense of normlessness or anomie is then caused by the failure to achieve the set goals. Individuals who lack conventional ways to achieve their set goals, they innovate new means of criminal activities or reinvent their goals to achieve them. The theory, unlike the other two specifies different types of adaptations to strain namely innovation, rebellion, conformity, ritualism and retreatism. The theory further makes it easy to understand different causes of crime as each adaptation given gets a definition by an actor that has different combinations of goals and means. For instance, the innovator can aspire to the goals that are prescribed by the standard society but do not have the means towards their achievement through normal activity channels (Agnew 123).Different from this, other people use retreatism to adapt to strain. For instance, retreatists do not aspire to either the standard means or the objectives and retreats from attaining their goals via drugs and alcohol use. Initially, the theory did not have empirical support which called for revision, later becoming the most empirically supported theory explaining causes of crime (Agnew 151).

To counter its critics, the theorist had to build on the classical tradition through giving further definition on new forms of strain, further differentiated between strains that are either objective or subjective, put more emphasis on the role that emotions play in the root cause of crime and coping with deviance, as well as giving predictions on the factors that can likely increase the probability that an actor reacts to a certain strain with deviance (Akers et al 647). In the other two crime theories, in-depth empirical information like this is not provided. To further shed some light on the theory, Agnew adopted a strain source from the classical tradition as goal blockage. He further added two new major strain types namely; strain as positive stimuli removal and strain as negative stimuli presentation (Sampson & Groves 780).The theory is much applicable to human’s life in its definition of strain that it is any issue, relationship or event in the life of a human being that is given a negative perception. Strain’s perceptions that are negative are equally important if not more than indicators that are objective in the prediction of behaviours exhibiting criminal activities or deviance. Strain also generates effective states that are negative which produce corrective action motivation. So as to meditate the relationship that exists between crime and strain, the emotion of anger is important as well as the emotions that are depressive such as hopelessness and despair that are related to mechanism of coping that are deviant such as drugs and alcohol use. Every human being can relate to this unlike the Institutional Anomie Theory and the Social-Disorganization Theory (Sampson & Groves 779).

The empirical research report on the suitability of this theory compared to others is based on a current research that draws on strain theories that are both general and classical in explaining the use of drugs and alcohol in Canada by use of a sample from a general population. For instance, while exploration of the relationship between drug use and strain is done, there has been an examination by few studies on its relation to the use of alcohol and majority have analysed samples from the university and school aged. From a more practical perspective, alcohol and drugs usage can be given the interpretation of a way through which one can cope with strain’s negative emotions, more so, hopelessness, anguish, depression and despair feelings. From this empirical study, an examination of how the objective indicators of strain perceptions that is subjective and strain itself has a direct association with the use of alcohol and drugs (Akers et al 651).Finally, results from an empirical study which explored the relationship between strain, gender and substance abuse led to the finding that men and women experience strain differently and those that men experience have a greater likelihood of leading to criminal coping, even though use of drug and alcohol predictions have a less clarity since differences in gender in substance abuse are highly limited. This makes the strain theory most suitable at explaining crime.

Works Cited

Burton, Velmer & Cullen, Francis,  The Empirical Status of Strain Theory  in  Journal of Crime and Justice  Vol. XV, No. 2,  Anderson Publishing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. 1992: Pp.1-23. Print.

Agnew, Robert.  A longitudinal Test of Social Control Theory and Delinquency in  Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Sage Publications, Inc. on behalf of School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers- Newark. Florida State University Library,Vol. 28, No. 2 1991: Pp. 126-156. Print.

Sampson, Robert & Groves, Byron.  Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory in  American Journal of Sociology,Vol. 94, No. 4. 1989: Pp. 774-802. Print.

Akers, Ronald et al,. Social Learning and Deviant Behavior: A Specific Test of a General Theory in  American Sociological Review, Volume 44, American Sociological Association, University of Lowa, 1979:Pp. 636- 655. Print.

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Comparison between the Confucian and Aristotle Teachings

 To begin with, Confucius defines societal relationships five cornerstones namely; ruler and subject; husband and wife; father and son; elder brother and younger brother and finally between friend and a friend. Unlike Aristotle, Confucius viewed human beings as players in social network’s context instead of individuals. He is very categorical in his way of thinking as he gives five relationships which are essential, three of which are relationships within the family, thus puts emphasis on the family unit’ superiority in the traditional society of China and way of thinking of Confucius. The family unit in Ancient China served governmental function which was Quasi. The family according to Confucius gave a social welfare system that is complete for the magistrate through demanding of a filial piety as a good son’s characteristic. According to (Ivanhoe et al, 1963),due to the fact that there exists a predominance of family relationship’s importance in the arrangement by Confucius has also been used to back up the suggestion that individuality concept does not exist in the Confucian system. With the in-depth explanation given by Confucius on the subject matter, this is just a narrow view of this discussion as for a proper functioning of these relationships to function well, ever there has to be a complete a complete moral action by each individual participant right from the family unit up to the state level that carries his/her full responsibility share as reciprocity is necessary in all types of relationships. Unlike Confucius, Aristotle does not emphasize on the necessity of reciprocity in all forms of relationships. He gives an example that the minister’s responsibility is not mindless, mechanical conformist; however the responsibility of individual citizen to cultivate his moral independence and conscience is (Santoni & Somerville, 1963).

 Another aspect of this view of family relationships is that the ruler and minister’s mutual obligation was earlier on to adhere to right, and consider the end relationship if there cannot be an agreement on that which is right as principle is what is attached to undying, not individuals ,according to this doctrine. In Confucian’s view, there is another Chinese family life’s feature that is in support of this interpretation which is; the early Pre- Qing Chinese Society, women status according to Confucius placed more value of individuality than the state unlike in Aristotle’s doctrine. Further, Confucianism is neither monolithic nor static, neither is woman’s role in China monolithic or static. For instance, Confucius backed up his day’s traditional thinking that supported the four virtues that were womanly namely; proper speech, morality, diligent work and modest manner. According to critics, this way of thinking led to a creation and justification of generations of oppression and subjection of females. Confucius views man as more of a social being rather than an independent agent. His arguments were used in the Twentieth century is supporting government reforms as well as used in fighting for the governments stabilization. In Contrast Aristotle’s teachings were never used for the same purpose as discussed below (Ivanhoe et al, 2001).

Aristotle

Unlike in the Confucian philosophy, Aristotle argues that the family or household’s relationship to the state is among the most important crucial questions of social teaching by Catholic and political philosophy. In his brief definition of the family, the state and how both are related, he defines the family as nature’s established association for the supply of every day’s wants for man. He goes further to say that when several families are united or join together, and the association’s objective is something more than just the supply of daily basic needs, village is the best society to be formed. The manner in which Aristotle breaks systematically breaks down the states segments down to the basic unit which is the family is different from Confucian’s approach on the same relationship. For two or more people living together to qualify to be called a family, a union must be there for those who cannot exist without each other, more male and female, that there may be continuation of the race. This union is not formed deliberately, but due to the fact that mankind, just like other animals and with plants, have a natural desire to leave their image behind, and of natural subject and ruler, that both may be preserved (Santoni & Somerville, 1963).

Right from the village level, several villages’ unity is ensured in a single community, which is large enough to be close or even suffices itself. It is at this level where the state comes in, coming from life’s bare needs and goes ahead to exist for good life’s sake. Therefore, if society’s earlier forms prove to be natural, likewise is the state, for it marks its end and a thing’s nature is its end as Aristotle argues. Aristotle goes ahead to state that naturally, the state comes before the family and the individual since the entire is very necessary before the part; for instance, if the entire body is destroyed, no foot or hand exists, only in cases of sense that Is equivocal, as mankind can talk of a stone hand because upon its destruction, the hand could be not any better than that. Definition of things is done by both their working and power. People can therefore not say that these two are the same when there proper quality is no longer there, but only that they have a similar name. For further relation, this philosopher explains that there is a proof that the state can be compared to a creation of nature and prior to the individual is that when he is isolated, he ceases to be self-sufficing, therefore becomes like a portion of the whole. However, this exposition that gives the relationship between the family and the state puts the reader in a state of soliloquy. These include the issue of whether it is the family or the state which should be prioritized (Santoni & Somerville, 1963).

Back to the household, Aristotle discusses on the relationship between husband and wife. An ideal marriage is said to be one based on a good friendship. Aristotle makes his stance that the husband-wife relationship does not qualify to be a most ideal and highest level of friendship. According to his schema, in (Ivanhoe et al, 2001), Aristotle explains on the inequality that exists between husband and wife based on property ownership, opportunity availability, access to and control of resources as well as different reproductive and productive roles.He further argues that wife and the husband do not give similar things to each other.

In his other works, such as Book VIII of the             Ethics, Aristotle first compares the husband-wife relationship to a form of political rule unlike Confucius who does not go into such details. He likens marriage to different form of governments in a state such as aristocracy due to the fact that both in aristocracy and marriage, superiority on worth basis or merit is the determining factor on who rules. At some point Aristotle explains how free both wife and children are and the implication by constitutional state conception that citizen’s nature is equal. He strongly believes that merits by the husband rules over the wife by virtue of having a uniquely male authority which is permanent, but are nonetheless both equal in their freemen’s dignity on their rational nature’s account(Santoni & Sommerville,1963).

 References

Santoni, R., & Somerville, J.,(1963) Social and Political Philosophy: Readings from Plato to Gandhi, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Print.

Ivanhoe, P.J et al. (2001) Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. Hackett Publishing: Indianapolis. Print.

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Marxist Theory

The research problem for this paper is possible reasons as to why profitable corporations/employers treat workers unfairly, and how are they able to do so. Based on Karl Mar’s theory of Capitalism, the central thesis of this paper is that  employers treat workers unfairly to increase profits, and constantly look for and find new ways to cut labour costs. As evident from the three articles, there is rampant and often unjust exploitation of employees in not only the United States (US) but also in a vast majority of nations across the world.  

Theoretical Framework

The five articles from New York Times are all evidences of the work place inequality and unfair treatment in the work place which, for instance leads to the scenario in, In Mott’s Strike, More Than Pay at Stake, the main cause being more hours at the workplace, leading to continued growth of the plant, yet worker’s salaries keeps reducing at the Mott’s Apple Juice Plant in upstate New York. Basically, the second article is on the same issues, whereby Tory Moore, even though having worked in Kankakee packaged-food warehouse for six years was later on denied apartment rentals and loan upon being told that his job was not real at the warehouse. This is the mistreatment of the highest order at the workplace. The other three articles agitate on low-compensation for temporary workers yet the industry thrives, the findings by study that Workers who are paid low wages are often cheated and the Mexican New Yorkers who are a steady force to reckon with in the Workplace. In the case of New York, Chicago and Los Angeles, workers who are paid low wages are continually denied overtime pay that is proper and are often given less payment than the minimum wage according to a recent research (Pierr & Andre 29).

The above scenarios can all be explained using the Karl Marx’s theory and a solution to this unrest can also be sought using the same. In his theory or inequality at the workplace, Karl Marx makes it clear that the world we live in, there is an uneven distribution of power, wealth, resources and various life prospects. More so, in today’s American society, it is more unequal by many measures like the ones mentioned above than the capitalist order against which according to Karl Marx’s writing on revolutionary protest in the mid-nineteenth century attests to. Research has it that as of 2004, the 1 % of the wealthiest United States(US) citizens owned more than five times as much as the total that was owned by the bottom half of wealth distributed. This inequality has continued to grow making the middle class levels in the society more vulnerable to inequality in the work place in their efforts to make ends meet. Further in 2009-2010, as the American economy began to recover from the financial disaster that was bank- made from which billions were made by the bankers, the top 1 & of income earners in the US captured 93% of the total income growth. Even as evident from the given five articles, the US is the most unequal of all the nations that are considered as developed in terms of employer-employee relations. Further, the inequality between the U.S and countries that are poorer is even greater. The increasing inequality trend since 1970s has always been increasing (Christensen 47).

This misdistribution has a high likelihood of reflecting a desert measure that is not conceivable or even distributive justice. Marx makes it clear that this inequality arises not from a free market, but from a market that is majorly characterized by oligopolies and monopolies, cronyism and political influence that is bought, collusion and some of this inequality at the work place emanates from the extreme passed lax laws and regulations. Karl Marx opposed the systematic inequalities in the society that surrounds him. In order to solve these disparities, he did an explicit advocate on, at least for the near future, many social measures that are supported by egalitarians (Pierr & Andre 31).

Analysis

Karl Marx’s concept of Bourgeois equal justice best explains the main motive behind the labour exploitation and violation of workers’ rights as the top class of people in the society aim at amassing much wealth at the expense of the middle and low class levels. The theoretical requirement by Marx in capital that the value of surplus has to  be explained on the assumption that values that are equal have to be exchanged between economic agents that are formally free and equal, contrary to the oppressed workers in the US situation. To further explain this inequality, Marx claims that the realm in which the capitalist purchases labour power is a veritable Eden of man’s innate rights namely; equality, liberty, Bentham and property, which has a literal meaning but its content is full of irony. In (Richard 5), more generally, missing the fact is hard and there is also the impossibility of interpreting it away in that Marx does not regard exploitation of a capitalist nature of labour as unjust, or as any violation of rights of labourers. In his view, the only rights that come into question in such a situation is those that correspond to the mode of production by Bourgeois. This makes the top crème of the society who own and manage these companies to exploit the readily available labour force who have limited options as there is a large pool of capital base. This category of people also hold senior position in the government, therefore are very influential and powerful, making the employees more subjective and have little say as pertains to their exploitation at the work place. According to (Baker et al 77) the widespread belief among lawyers and specialists in industrial relations is that relationships in the work place are characterized by a systematic power imbalance between employers and workers. This belief traces back at least to the early industrial revolution’s years was reinforced and propagated by Karl Marx. He argued that workers could and would properly use their stronger bargaining power in driving wages to levels that are subsistence. He categorizes capitalists into two forms namely; the soft-hearted and incompetent capitalist. The former is sympathetic for the workers who are unfortunate, whose level of productivity is not that high but has to pay heavy medical expenses for a child that is chronically ill. For the latter type of capitalist, he grossly overestimates his workers’ value and as a result of this error makes a payment that is more than the actual values. The former type of capitalists is common in the US and in many parts of the globe (Christensen 55).

From various perspectives on employment relationships, the above situation can be dealt with if it is made known to workers that all contracts on employment between individuals and employers who aim at maximizing profits in industrialized nations like the US are at-will contracts on the side of the employer. Once all employees know their rights at the work place, they will be in a better position to deal with scenarios such as the ones discussed in the articles. Although, hiring and training placement costs can be substantial, in a large majority of employers cases have less power to prevent resignations from jobs, except through bettering or matching job offers. In defence of the exploited and mistreated workers, Karl Marx condemns the capitalists saying that they steal labour time from people who are working, however, one can only steal from someone only that which belongs to him properly. Marxist argument has the implication that the employee has proper ownership rights of his labour time and no other party, not even the manager can decide what has to be done with the employees’ capacity to work. This means that, hence the Marxist charges of exploitation are dependent on the proposition that people rightly own their own powers; this is what defines the self-ownership thesis in this article. Further, according to the traditional Marxist thesis, forcible appropriation of another person’s labour time and product by virtue of ownership of production means has always been unfair and unjust, making the above mentioned cases one of the most unjust forms of exploitation (Friedman 113).

Conclusion

Marx could have analysed the situation in the three treatises as cases of unfairness in the work place between the employer and worker. There is a major problem at the work place as shown in the treatises and Karl Marx strongly argues that this is not the way capitalist relations at the workplace should work, that is there should be free market place of labour, competition should be allowed and employees’ choice and rights should be adhered to the latter. According to most contemporary labour economists, elementary economic analysis suggest that, as for other goods and services that are traded through markets, wages and other employment terms which are largely determined by forces of supply and demand in the market. It is therefore necessary to educate workers on their workplace rights and come up with strict legal measures against those who violate the workers’ rights. Further research needs to be done to cut across all regions of the globe to address the issue of unfair treatment and inequality at the work place not only in the developed nations (Richard 7).

Works Cited

Baker, George, et al.‘Relational contracts and the theory of the firm’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2002: 117(1), 39–84.Print.

Pierr, Cahuc & Andre, Zylberberg, Labour Economics, Cambridge Mass:

The MIT Press.2004: Pp. 24-38. Print.

Christensen, BJ, et al . ‘On-the- Job Search and the Wage Distribution:’ Journal of Labour Economics,2005 :Pp. 31–58.Print.

Richard, Epstein .Is There Unequal Bargaining Power in the Labour Market?,

Wellington: New Zealand Business Roundtable.2005: Pp. 3-9. Print.

Friedman, Sheldon &Wood, Stephen, ‘Employers’ Unfair Advantage in the

United States of America: Symposium on the Human Rights Watch Report on

the State of Workers’ Freedom of Association in the United States’,

British Journal of Industrial Relations, 2002: Pp. 113.

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Do employers treat workers unfairly to increase profits? An analysis using Karl Marx Theory

The research problem for this paper is possible reasons as to why profitable corporations/employers treat workers unfairly, and how are they able to do so. Based on Karl Mar’s theory of Capitalism, the main thesis of this treatise is that  employers treat workers unfairly to increase profits, and constantly look for and find new ways to cut labour costs. As evident from the articles discussed, there is rampant and often unjust exploitation of employees in not only the United States (US) but also in a vast majority of nations across the world.

Theoretical Framework

The five articles from New York Times are all evidences of the work place inequality and unfair treatment in the work place which, for instance leads to the scenario in the first article, the main cause being more hours at the workplace, leading to continued growth of the plant, yet worker’s salaries keeps reducing at the Upstate New York’s Apple Juice Plant by Mott. Basically, the second article is on the same issues, whereby Tory Moore, even though having worked in Kankakee packaged-food warehouse for six years was later on denied apartment rentals and loan upon being told that his job was not real at the warehouse. This is the mistreatment of the highest order at the workplace. The other three articles agitate on low-compensation for temporary workers yet the industry thrives, the findings by study that Workers who are paid low wages are often cheated and the Mexican New Yorkers who are a steady force to reckon with in the Workplace. In the case of New York, Chicago and Los Angeles, workers who are paid low wages are continually denied overtime pay that is proper and are often given less payment than the minimum wage according to a recent research (Pierr & Andre 29).

The above scenarios can all be explained using the Karl Marx’s theory and a solution to this unrest can also be sought using the same. In his theory or inequality at the workplace, Karl Marx makes it clear that the world we live in, there is an uneven distribution of power, wealth, resources and various life prospects. More so, in today’s American society, it is more unequal by many measures like the ones mentioned above than the capitalist order against which according to Karl Marx’s writing on revolutionary protest in the mid-nineteenth century attests to. Research has it that as of 2004, the 1 % of the wealthiest United States (US) citizens had an ownership of more than five times of the total that was owned by the distributed half’s bottom half. There has been a continued growth making the middle class levels in the society more vulnerable to inequality in the work place in their efforts to make ends meet. Further in 2009-2010, as the American economy began to recover from the financial disaster that was bank- made from which billions were made by the bankers, the top 1 & of those who earn income in the US captured 93% of the total growth of income. Even as evident from the given five articles, the US is the most unequal of all the nations that are considered as developed in terms of employer-employee relations. Further, the inequality between the U.S and countries that are poorer is even greater. The increasing inequality trend since 1970s has always been increasing (Christensen 47).

This misdistribution has a high likelihood of reflecting a desert measure that is not conceivable or even distributive justice. Marx makes it clear that this inequality arises not from a free market, but from a market that is majorly characterized by oligopolies and monopolies, cronyism and political influence that is bought, collusion and some of this inequality at the work place emanates from the extreme passed lax laws and regulations. Karl Marx opposed the systematic inequalities in the society that surrounds him. In order to solve these disparities, he did an explicit advocate on, at least for the near future, many social measures that are supported by egalitarians (Pierr & Andre 31).

Analysis

Karl Marx’s concept of Bourgeois equal justice best explains the main motive behind the labour exploitation and violation of workers’ rights as the top class of people in the society aim at amassing much wealth at the expense of the middle and low class levels. The theoretical requirement by Marx in capital that the value of surplus has to  be explained on the assumption that values that are equal have to be exchanged between economic agents that are formally free and equal, contrary to the oppressed workers in the US situation. To further explain this inequality, Marx claims that the realm in which the capitalist purchases labour power is a veritable Eden of man’s innate rights namely; equality, liberty, Bentham and property, which has a literal meaning but its content is full of irony. In (Richard 5), more generally, missing the fact is hard and there is also the impossibility of interpreting it away in that Marx does not regard exploitation of a capitalist nature of labour as unjust, or as any violation of rights of labourers. In his view, the only rights that come into question in such a situation is those that correspond to the mode of production by Bourgeois. This makes the top crème of the society who own and manage these companies to exploit the readily available labour force who have limited options as there is a large pool of capital base. This category of people also hold senior position in the government, therefore are very influential and powerful, making the employees more subjective and have little say as pertains to their exploitation at the work place. According to (Baker et al 77) the belief that is widespread among lawyers and specialists in relations among industries is that relationships in the work place are characterized by a systematic imbalance of power between workers and employers the belief traces back to the early industrial revolution’s years at least, after its reinforcement and propagation by Karl Marx. He argued that there is a probability that workers can use their stronger bargaining power in driving wages to levels that are subsistence. He categorizes capitalists into two forms namely; the soft-hearted and incompetent capitalist. The former is sympathetic for the workers who are unfortunate, whose level of productivity is not that high but has to pay heavy medical expenses for a child that is chronically ill. For the latter type of capitalist, he grossly overestimates his workers’ value and as a result of this error makes a payment that is more than the actual values. The former type of capitalists is common in the US and in many parts of the globe (Christensen 55).

From various perspectives on employment relationships, the above situation can be dealt with if it is made known to workers that all contracts on employment between individuals and employers who aim at maximizing profits in industrialized nations like the US are at-will contracts on the side of the employer. Once all employees know their rights at the work place, they will be in a better position to deal with scenarios such as the ones discussed in the articles. Although, the process of hiring then training placement costs can be substantial, in many of the employers cases have less power to reduce the rate of resignations from jobs, except through bettering or matching job offers. In defence of the exploited and mistreated workers, Karl Marx condemns the capitalists saying that they steal labour time from people who are working, however, one can only steal from someone only that which belongs to him properly. Marxist argument has the implication that the employee has proper ownership rights of his labour time and no other party, not even the manager can decide what has to be done with the employees’ capacity to work. This means that, hence the Marxist charges of exploitation are dependent on the proposition that people rightly own their own powers; this is what defines the self-ownership thesis in this article. Further, according to the traditional Marxist thesis, forcible appropriation of another person’s labour time and product by virtue of ownership of production means has always been unfair and unjust, making the above mentioned cases one of the most unjust forms of exploitation (Friedman 113).

Conclusion

Marx could have analysed the situation in the three treatises as cases of unfairness in the work place between the employer and worker. There is a major problem at the work place as shown in the treatises and Karl Marx strongly argues that this is not the way capitalist relations at the workplace should work, that is there should be free market place of labour, competition should be allowed and employees’ choice and rights should be adhered to the latter.

According to most contemporary labour economists, economic analysis that is elementary suggest that, as for other goods and services who’s trading is done in markets, wages and other employment terms which are largely determined through supply and demand forces in the market. It is, therefore, necessary to educate workers on their workplace rights and come up with strict legal measures against those who violate the workers’ rights. Further research needs to be done to cut across all regions of the globe to address the issue of unfair treatment and inequality at the work place not only in the developed nations (Richard 7).

Works Cited

Baker, George, et al.‘Relational contracts and the theory of the firm’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2002: 117(1), 39–84.Print.

Christensen, BJ, et al . ‘On-the- Job Search and the Wage Distribution: ’Journal of Labour Economics,2005: Pp. 31–58.Print.

Friedman, Sheldon &Wood, Stephen, ‘Employers’ Unfair Advantage in the United States of America: Symposium on the Human Rights Watch Report on the State of Workers’ Freedom of Association in the United States’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 2002:Pp. 113.

Pierr, Cahuc & Andre, Zylberberg, Labour Economics, Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press.2004: Pp. 24-38. Print.

Richard, Epstein .Is There Unequal Bargaining Power in the Labour Market?, Wellington: New Zealand Business Roundtable.2005: Pp. 3-9. Print.

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Uncategorized

“Knew, Learned, Corrected” (Reflection)

As a student in the Religion and Theology class, I had some knowledge on all religions, though after going through the course I gained more knowledge about the same that I never knew before. Some of the knowledge I had before enrolling for the course only turned out to be a misconception after the new readings, viewings and lecturers which brought about a new insight altogether on all these religions, more so Hindu and Islam on the connection between soul, body and life of a human being. This brings about the concepts of eschatology and thanatology that explains death (Lewis, 2009).

Body

Being a Christian, earlier on I had some little knowledge on other religions before enrolling for the course. I knew that death at some point was a punishment from Allah on those that had committed certain crimes. The Quran puts it clear that for every nation, there is a doom, that is after they have committed sin, so when their doom comes, they shall surely go. When reflecting about the future world, Muslims always make articulations on both the realities that provided information on their healthy lives and what they expect of conditions in another world that would provide them utter respite in the Garden or the fire’s intensified toil (Lewis, 2009).

Pertaining to Hindu Funeral rites, cremation is made to most Hindus as per the belief that it helps in escaping their soul at a quicker rate than the body. This is one is conventionally known. However, upon going through the course materials, details of the various rituals that may take place around the dead body are discussed. They include; placing of a lamp by the dead body’s head, singing of hymns and praying, placing of rice balls in the coffin, sprinkling of water on the body and putting a necklace of wooden beads around the neck of the dead person, all of which have a deeper ritual meaning.  

After going through the course work on various religions, majoring on Islam and Hindu religion, the readings, viewings and lectures I have gained new insights and relevant pieces of knowledge from the course works. As pertains the Islamic religion, I learned that when punishing men for their wrong doing, he does it to all, not leaving any single creature, but he gives them a stated terms respite that upon the expiry of their term, they would not be in a position to delay the punishment for even a single hour, just the same way they would not be able to anticipate it for even a single hour.

Conclusion

Some of the misconceptions and ‘blanks’ that I had before going through the course about other religions, more so the Hindu and Islam religion, being among the major religions include; I knew that in the Islam religion, soul was removed but the body enter an imaginable state and wait for the judgment day. However the readings made it clear that the person is theologically questioned by angels such as Nakir and Munkar but does not await the judgment day like it is the case on my Christian religion (Lewis, 2009).The work has corrected this.  Before going through the course, i used to think that cremation is done uniformly across the globe but now it is made clear that how the cremation takes place all depends on where it happens.

Reference

Lewis, D.A., (2009) Islam and the Afterlife, W.W. Norton & Company. Print.