Summary on an Assault on Justice

Justice refers to the attainment of what is just, especially that which is moral, right, fair, or in agreement with the law. On the other hand, the term justice can also be defined as the principle of being righteous. The article, therefore, is a summary based on the reading titled “An assault on Justice”.

From the article titled “An assault on justice,” we get different incidents that are articulated by the author trying to give assault activities that are undertaken by the guards. The author in his statement or rather arguments we find that the situation has been a daily routine and the officers have taken it as a hobby since none is on the look on what is happening to prisoners in their respective cells. An example of the prisons stated by the author, in this case, such as New York’s Ryker Island and Loreto, which are termed to be notorious for violent assaults committed by guards on duty.

Narrowing down into much details from the article, we find that the author who was a prisoner for approximately 23 months in a federal prison for the reason of blowing the whistle on the CIA’s torture program gives what he experienced in one of the federal correctional institutions at Loretto. While at the correctional facility a former guard was brought in as a prisoner, the former guard had used his boots to stomp one of the prisoner leaving him unconscious. The statements from the guards who brought him were very clear “this is his house” which afterward he was transferred to the minimum-security work camp across the street, despite the fact he had committed an offense which of course justice was on assault.

Additionally, from the article we also come across the other incidents that were evidenced by the author as what we call as denial of rights for the prisoners which in other terms referred to as an assault is the story of one of his cellmate whom he gave the name as “James.” James was a mentally ill homeless man who was clear with both of his medical staffs and cellmates that he was mentally sick and needed medical care as suggested by the author. From the article, we find that James was about to be released, but the problem comes in when he was denied his meds.

From James struggles to try and get his meds the staffs got angered which made him be stripped naked, beaten and kicked out of the institution. The scenario took place in the month of January which is associated with low temperatures which at 10 degrees in Pennsylvania Mountains, From the incident an eye witness stated that James tried to apologize asking the officers to let him back but all was in vain which made him cry bitterly a couple of hours and fainted.

The guards who did this to James were never punished, and the incident passed is also true that even if he had reported the incident to the federal bureau of prisons headquarters, none would have heard. Also, we get the question rising that would you believe a mentally ill man who is also homeless and a uniformed law enforcement officer. From this incident, we find the aspect of justice much assaulted than anticipated.


From the case, we find the issue of Justice not taken into account especially in most of our prisons or rather cells. In most of the cells, we find guards involving themselves in criminal activities against the prisoners especially unauthorized beatings and torture to an extent that leads to the death of the prisoners. It is therefore recommended for the justice department in every country to take into account the aspect of justice to the later and get officers who have the ill intention of assaulting inmates charged and arrested.


(2016). Retrieved 29 January 2016, from

Harrison, P. M., & Beck, A. J. (2002). Prisoners in 2001. Fed. Sent. R., 15, 66.


The Case of Jason

The paper is an essay that will base its discussion on “The case of Jason”. The paper is going to give a response to questions that articulates from the case study such as giving a description of the terms “risk” and “protective” factors, description of four of Jason’s risk and corresponding protective factors.

Briefly, describe the terms “risk” and “protective” factors

“Risk” factors refer to negative influences in the lives of individuals within a community. These factors may lead to an increase in the occurrence of victimization, crime and the likelihood that individuals within a community would be victims or engage in criminal activities. On the other hand, protective factors are the positive influences that can lead to an improvement of an individual’s life or the community safety. The protective factors may decrease the likelihood that persons would engage themselves in crime or become victims.

Describe four of Jason’s risk and corresponding protective factors

Jason’s risks factors are such as emotional problems in childhood, as we can see the aspect of emotional problem led to his daily calls to his mother while crying. The second risk factor is low self-esteem which leads to little cooperation as anticipated by the grandmother. The third risk factor that reveals itself is Violent witness in that he gets to see a gun in the custody of Susan and Stanley at times would get into a fight. The fourth risk factor is his overweight, which would lead to some health disorders. For Jason’s case, he ought to take into consideration the protective factors such as avoiding ignorance and bearing in account the aspect of education and training which we find that he has started.

 Describe four of the family’s risk and corresponding protective factors

Family distress also stands out as a family risk especially the trouble occurring between the mother and the grandmother. The second risk factor is corporal punishment. From Mary S., Susan, and Stanley we find Jason undergoing some pain infliction from their punching which to some extent exposes the victim to some torture. The third risk factor is policies and living policies, from the case of Jason we get that though the grandmother is caring to some extent she does not consider her responsibilities as a guardian to Jason. The fourth risk is early and repeated anti-social behaviors in the family. From these factors, the family needs to take into account some of the protective measures such as good parental skills, positive attitude, beliefs or values and strong social support for Jason to be whom they anticipate in the future.

Describe three community and environmental risk and protective factors

The community and environmental risk and protective factors are such as lack of services that entails the aspect of socializing. Jason in his area of residential does not have age mates whom they can share issues apart from the elderly neighbor. The second risk factor is a Poor academic achievement and the third risk factor that also articulates is the aspect of poverty as we can see the mother giving him to the grandmother. The protective factors that are taken into account in this situation are such as getting the opportunity for engagement both in school and the community, positive norms and presence of mentors and support for developing interests and skills.

Describe particular social policy issue(s) that are relevant for Jason’s case study?

The aspect of social policy aims at improving human welfare to meet human thirst for health, housing, education and socialization. The specific social policies that are relevant in Jason’s case includes social security in that he needs to be free to both the family members and feel secure. The other aspect is living conditions, the grandmother to some extent has tried to take good care of the grandson, but she needs to enhance some aspects such as leaving Jason back with no money and food. Social housing, family policy, child protection especially from the punches, and education policy also becomes relevant in Jason’s case.

Briefly, describe what an administrator should be mindful of when creating programs that could benefit Jason and his family.

The administrator in his full capacity to be of more beneficial to both Jason and his family needs to put into account the aspect of social policy by considering family policy, child protection since the family seems to be more flexible regarding punching of their children from the grandmother to step- father. The administrator also needs to sensitize the family on the risk factors and the protective factors in that if the risks surpass the protective factors would lead to the victimization of their children leading to psychological torture hence traumatic disorders.

Work Cited

Board, Y. J. (2010). Risk and protective factors. Youth Justice Board for England and Wales, available online at www. yjb. gov. UK/publications/resources/downloads/rpf% 20report. pdf.


Human Genetics and Eugenics

Human genetics refers to the study of inheritance in human beings. It encompasses several fields including biochemical genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics, classical and clinical genetics. On the other hand, Eugenics is the practice or study aimed at improving human gene by encouraging people reproduction of desirable traits and prevent the reproduction of undesirable people which in other terms eugenics is an improvement of genetics. This article will, therefore, narrow its discussion by looking deeply into the aspect of cloning as one of the practices related to genetics and eugenics.

Cloning in a broader perspective refers to the science of producing genetically identical copies of the biological entity via somatic cell transfer. There are two ways of making a genetic copy of an organism, and these refer to artificial embryo twinning which is a relatively low-tech way of making clones, as the name suggest it mimics the natural way that leads to the creation of identical twins. The other way that is used in the process of cloning is somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

Cloning in broader perspective has led to numerous differences in that some are supporting it and some do refute the aspect of producing identical copies as we can see from the pros and cons. From the issue of reproductive cloning, we come to understand that families who have no children can now gain children who are genetically related. Many individuals believe that cloning gets its better use in replacing failing organs, and this would diminish the urge for organ donation and more people would be saved.

On the other side, we find that some individuals do not give an upper hand to the aspect of cloning. Still under the aspect of reproductive cloning, we find that it brings the misunderstanding that children can be replicated and designed to the wishes of the parents. Many individuals also believe that cloning is against God’s wishes in that clones are created by man and also believed that these clones would be created without a soul.


From the aspect of cloning to some extent we get the field of technology and science om their toes in improving human health and the living standards tirelessly. Even though there are numerous pros, there must be cons in each and every aspect that exists in the world. Therefore, it is human beings to take heed and precautions.

Work Cited

Aversano, L., Cerulo, L., & Di Penta, M. (2010). How clones are maintained: An empirical study. In Software Maintenance and Reengineering, 2007. CSMR’07. 11th European Conference on (pp. 81-90). IEEE.

Brock, D. W. (2008). Cloning human beings: an assessment of the ethical issues pro and con. Clones and clones: Facts and fantasies about human cloning, 160.

Kevles, D. J. (2015). In the name of eugenics: Genetics and the uses of human heredity (No. 95). Harvard University Press.

Paul, D. B., & Hasian, M. A. (2008). Controlling human heredity: 1865 to the present.

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F., & Maniatis, T. (2014). Molecular cloning (Vol. 2, pp. 14-9). New York: Cold spring harbor laboratory press.

Vogel, F., & Motulsky, A. G. (2013). Vogel and Motulsky’s Human Genetics: Problems and Approaches. Springer Science & Business Media.


Jane Goodall research on wild chimpanzees


The article is an essay that will base its discussion on Jane Goodall research by responding to the following questions.


How was Jane Goodall research beneficial to science?

Jane Goodall research is of more use to science in that it has contributed much to the field of science by getting hundreds of people understand much on chimpanzees. Her research has opened a new window onto the world of the chimpanzee which has led to the human love for chimpanzees all over the world hence researchers have taken heed of her research and given it an upper hand.


Was is scientific?

Jane Goodall research was scientific in that it is defined as a controlled, systematic, critical and empirical investigation of hypothetical propositions about assumed facts. As we can get to understand from her research most of her researches that she undertook were mostly overlooked by the early scientists on wild chimpanzees. From the research, we also come to get that researcher have changed their thoughts on the aspect of seeing apes as primitive and viewed them as intelligent and highly emotional creatures.


Do you notice any potential flaws in JG research?

From her research, there are some flaws that are evidenced in that the aspect of naming rather than numbering which has been termed as unconventional by some primatologists.


Was she an “objective researcher”?

Of course she was an objective researcher, from her work she was very precise, open, accepted criticism and honest with her work. From these characteristics, we describe her to be an objective researcher as compared to a subjective researcher.


Was it proper for her to name chimps?

It was proper for her to give names to the chimpanzees which led to the realization of her expectations or rather objectives of the research. From the aspect of naming, she came to realize much on the aspect of emotion and individuality in chimpanzees to a broader perspective.

Work Cited

YouTube, (2016). Among the Wild Chimpanzees – National Geographic (With Subtitles). Retrieved 1February 2016, from


The battle of Hastings

Answering Questions


The artifact was created to sensitize and give much information on the battle of Hastings that took place on October 14th, 1066. This event is of more significance to the English history since it completely changed the course of English history. Also, what makes the events more significant again is the immutable fact that that was the last time a foreign power was to conquer which in this case we find the Norman soldiers led by William II of Normandy conquered a better part of the English land during the Hastings 1066 battle.


The information I get from Bayeux Tapestry much is articulated as anticipated by the reader as compared to other information on the same aspect of Hastings battle 1066. In broader perspective we find Bayeux Tapestry going into details giving facts as they represented themselves during the Hastings battle of 1066 that was between Duke William II of Normandy and Harold the second of England. The reward to the victor of the war as we can get from the text was the throne of England and from the battle, William II became the victor where his title changed to William, the conqueror.


William of Malmesbury who was born of a Norman father and English mother we find him in broader perspective giving many details on Hastings battle of the year 1066 where he gives a description of both parties involved in the fight. The two sides were all preparing for the war as we can see from the text English soldiers passed the night sleepless in singing and drinking, on the other hand, Normans passed their night in confessing their sins which they later received the communion of the lord’s body on the day of the fight. From both sides, we also found the aspect of courage as portrayed by the battling parties. 


As it is noted that the Anglo-Saxons were the dominants of the English country up to the time of Hastings battle that led to the death of their king Harold and paved way for Norman victory. Their culture was much on the aspect of buildings, illuminated texts, grave goods and dress styles. From these elements, we find their nature bounded on the issue of tribe and lordship ties and elites who ascended to the throne and ruled their subjects in biblical terms which were enhanced by their rulers.

Work Cited

Rud, Mogens. The Bayeux tapestry and the battle of Hastings 1066. Eilers, 2008.


Working with culture: culturally mental health care for Asian Americans

The paper is to give a discussion on the study titled “Working with culture: culturally mental health care for Asian Americans”. The objective of the study is to give a description on how mental healthcare providers adapted their practice to address the Asian Americans unique needs.

As we can note the increasing number of ethnic minorities and multicultural patients, it is of more significance for health practitioners to acquire cultural competency as an essential skill in their provision of services. From the study, there are three characteristics of culturally appropriate care for Asian identified and these includes cultural brokering. For the case of brokering health providers addressed aspects stemming from cultural differences through bicultural skills education. We find that the Asian Americans received a broader education than the recommended literature currently.

The other characteristics articulated from the study is supporting families in transition in that health providers gave essential assistance to Asian American families during their transition to and from professional care. The third characteristics are the use of cultural knowledge for the enhancement of competent care. The health practitioners’ knowledge of Asian culture and attitude flexibility contributes immensely to the provision of their services in that it enhances proficiency in most of the institutions.

Additionally, from the study, we get to understand that providers who are culturally competent can identify cultural issues relevant to the current situation hence an incorporated cultural solution into the provided care.


From the study, it is of more significance for health providers especially in San Francisco where the population of the Asian American population has grown to almost approximately 33% of the population to take heed of culturally appropriate care. Taking heed of culturally appropriate care prepares nurses to handle complex practices hence, it is of much significance.

Work Cited

Park, M., Chesla, Rehm, C. A., R. S., & Chun, K. M. (2011). Working with culture: Culturally appropriate mental health care for Asian Americans. Journal of advanced nursing, 67(11), 2373-2382.


The service industry journal

This paper will provide a comprehensive critique of the article titled “the service industry journal” which entails a subtopic by the titled “towards a successful CRM implementation in banks: An integrated model” by Riyad Eid back on 17th November in the year 2007.

The article in broader perspective makes us understand more from the research study of Customer relationship management as it is applied in banking companies or rather industries. The author Riyad Eid brings in the concept of using human resources and technology to the better part of customer relationship management. Customer relationship management (CRM) as anticipated in a company aids in the provision of better consumer services, increase client’s satisfaction and to some extent helps the staffs to close deals faster as articulated in the objectives.

From the article’s abstract, we get to understand the purpose of the study, in that the study is aimed at looking into the roles of Customer relationship management programs in an organization’s system, especially in the banking sector. Also, the abstract brings in the aspect of marketing activities identification affected by the usage of a customer relationship management system. Still on the abstract it meets the anticipation of the reader since we come to find that the study did a sampling of 159 banking companies utilizing a customer relationship management system, where they found an effective usage of CRM on marketing objectives. The results of the study as articulated in the abstract met the readers’ urge in that CRM critical success factors need to be holistically implemented for successful implementation of CRM.

The introduction as always anticipated by any reader always states what the problem is and what the article entails in a broader perspective. From the article, the introduction part brings in the problem to be solved in the study which is how the banking companies can have a successful CRM system within the organization. As we can get from the article, the author met his anticipation following the research study. Still from the introduction much is touched on the other researches that were aiming at the successful implementation of CRM system in the company.

From the article or rather Study, we find the design and procedures complying with the standards needed for a research study. For all research studies, we find that the abstract tries to summarize or rather gives details of the research study to the reader, just as we can get from the article the abstract brings in the purpose of the study as to why the study is of more importance to organizations. As we can see from the abstract, the purpose has been articulated clearly, and the results also stated in that the reader’s attention is captured and would gain more interest in the article.

The introduction that is following the abstract also brings in the concept that needs to be discussed in the article as anticipated by the author. The introduction, in this case, would describe more on the problem to be solved which in the article the problem stated is the aspect of CRM usage in organizations and how effective it would be to the satisfaction of customer relations.

From the research we get objectives well-articulated after the introduction such as identification of critical success factors for CRM implementation, developing and clarifying a model integrated CRM constructs and consequences on effectiveness and customer relationship success.  Lastly, on the objectives, it will specify and test hypothesized relationships derived from conceptual framework.

The goals and objectives of the research study as articulated are achieved through the findings in that implementation of customer relationship and management (CRM) in most organizations as we have seen from the article, improves the ability of an organization to understand the needs of their clients currently, previous behaviors, and how they are going to behave in the future or rather behaviors they will exhibit in the future.

The other thing that is achieved by the author is the research methodology which involves research design which aimed to develop a model for CRM implementation, whereby reviewing the literature, hypotheses summarized into an integrated CRM model whose validity is tested or confirmed by gathering data from banks utilizing a customer relationship management. The research model investigated the success of customer relationship management implementation as considered by bank managers. We also found that it examined CRM consequences on customer relationship management effectiveness and customer retention.

Under the research methodology, we also find the aspect of data collection which relied on the representatives of the respondents from selected database of banks. Also, under the research methodology, the author meets the readers’ anticipation by looking into research development. Lastly, after the research methodology, we get the aspect of analysis and results well discussed in tabulation form that enables the reader to get much on the findings.


From the article, we get to understand the aspect of customer relationship management (CRM) in broader perspective giving the benefits of its implementation into the organization. Through the design and procedure of the article we also find the author meeting the anticipation or rather expectation of the reader in that from the abstract up to the conclusion we find the article within its objectives and goals of the study.


Eid, R. (2007). Towards  Successful CRM Implementation in Banks: An Integrated Model.



Abdominal wall reconstruction: Enhancing patients’ outcomes with ventral incisional hernias pdf.

The reason as to why I have chosen the topic is that the aspect of ventral incisional hernia (VIH) has been popular, and the claims are moving at an alarming rate. Therefore, there is much need especially in the United States of America resulting to readmission of patients. It has been noted that the readmission of patients to a greater extent leads to high medical cost because of unplanned surgeries, untoward events. Looking deep into the aspects of hernia recurrence and hospital readmission we find that it is associated with surgical management of patients suffering from ventral incision hernia (VIH). Statistics has it that approximately 350,000 repairs are undertaken in the United States of America annually.

A good number of patients suffering from VIHs are associated with some underlying comorbidities incorporating obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiopulmonary disease. It is also noted that patients with VIHs are at higher risk due to the increased incidence such as surgical site occurrence (SSO) inclusive of surgical site infection (SSI), wound dehiscence, seroma and enterocutaneous fistulae at the site of repair.

As a result, there are various strategies in place to help solve the current situation and these are the Preoperative optimization, postoperative care and intraoperative technical innovations which to some extent are anticipated to enhance surgical outcomes from abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). From the implementation of these strategies, we come to note that the adverse effects such as readmission to hospitals are curbed leading to less expense.

Work cited

Clark, J. L. (2001). Ventral incisional hernia recurrence. Journal of Surgical Research, 99(1), 33-39.

Nahabedian, M. Y., & Nahabedian, A. G. (2016). Abdominal wall reconstruction: Enhancing outcomes for patients with ventral incisional hernias. Nursing2015, 46(2), 30-38.


Software Life-cycle Model (SLIM)

The paper is an essay that will base its discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of Putnam’s software lifecycle model (SLIM).

Strengths of Putnam’s model (SLIM)

From the use of Putnam’s software life cycle model (SLIM), we encounter or rather realize strengths and weaknesses of the model. From the application of Putnam’s software life cycle model (SLIM), we find that there is the use of linear programming in considering development constraints on both effort and cost (Boehm, Abts & Chelan, 2000). The other advantage or rather strength is that software lifecycle model (SLIM) has fewer parameters that are required for the generation of an estimate over constructive cost model (COCOMO’II) and COCOMO’81 (Basili & Musa, 1991).

The model in its application leads to the aspect of calibration in that the model is fine-tuned to represent the local software development environment through the interpretation of a historical database of past projects. It enhances in the building of information model of the system, persona, attributes, collecting software and computer attributes in a broader perspective. Still on the use of Putnam’s software lifecycle model (SLIM), there is the aspect of software sizing that uses the automated version of the lines of code (LOC) costing technique (Boehm, Abts & Chelan, 2000).

The other strength that can be noted in the application of Putnam’s software life cycle model (SLIM) is that it makes a sharp distinction between process productivity and conventional productivity in that case, which makes it more sensitive hence its preference for other models (Putnam, 2001).

The weaknesses of Putnam’s software life cycle model (SLIM)

On the other hand, the weaknesses of its applications such as estimates are more sensitive to the technology factor making it a weakness for its implementation. The other drawback is that it is not suitable for smaller projects (Basili & Musa, 1991). It is also noted that it is not in a position of dealing with exceptional conditions which are encountered in the process. It is also a weakness of the model in that it cannot quantify some actors and experiences within the process. Lastly, we find that it also consumes much time and money before the expected results are realized from the application of the model (Putnam, 2001).

From the use of Putnam’s software life cycle model (SLIM), we find numerous advantages over the other cost estimation models such as constructive cost model (COCOMO) which is one of the earliest and most used models commercially as compared to Putnam’s software lifecycle model (SLIM) (Putnam, 2001). COCOMO’81 was established back in the year 1981 and later led to the establishment of COCOMO’11, which has also found its wider application in cost estimation. As we compare these models, we still find Putnam’s more accurate from the application of estimation method of an algorithmic approach that makes it more suitable for use especially in the field of engineering. Therefore, it has found its wider use as an estimation model because of its numerous advantages over the other models such as constructive cost model (COCOMO’81) and COCOMO’ 11 (Putnam, 2001).


Basili, V. R., & Musa, J. D. (1991). Future engineering of software: A management perspective. Computer, (9), 90-96.

Boehm, B., Abts, C., & Chulani, S. (2000). Software development cost estimation approaches—A survey. Annals of software engineering, 10(1-4), 177-205.

Putnam, L. (2001). “Software Life Cycle Model (SLIM).”


Thermal insulation paper from CEP

From the article, we get to understand the purpose of insulating materials in broader perspective such as reducing heat gain or loss for energy conservation. Insulation systems also control equipment process temperature, controlling surface temperature for personnel protection, reduce greenhouse gases emission. Thermal insulation also prevents condensation on surfaces and lastly aid in fire protection (Hart, 2014).

Reading through the article, we also come to several properties that define the thermal ability of different materials which includes the K-value or rather thermal conductivity that determines the rate of heat flow through a uniform material caused by temperature difference. The second property is the C-value that depends on material thickness, the C-value can be calculated by dividing K-value by the material thickness. The last property is U-value or rather a Thermal transmittance, to get U-value we need to put into account heat transfer through the insulation as well as through the gaps between it and any insulation material (Hart, 2014).

Work cited Hart, G. (2014). selecting thermal insulation