Scientific discourse contributed to the emergence of forms of knowledge and expertise. In terms of knowledge, people was given exclusive rights to speak and act. For instance, the knowledge of a given group or individuals was excluded and marked inferior to others either as a result of them being younger, perceived as having less experience or new to a field. The neo-historical faction such as The Regeneration by Pat Barker and the evolution of inanimate objects by Harry Karlinsky will assist engage the hierarchy of power that was established by scientific discourse. Therefore, the paper will discuss the two novels on how they engage with hierarchies of power established by scientific discourse as well as the relationship between science and history.
The Regeneration by Pat
Pat Barker, in the novel “The Regeneration” published in 1991, explores historical happenings such as the experiences of soldiers being treated for a shell shock during the First World War. The novel opens with the war poet Sassoon who declared himself as a conscientious objector and was sent as a shell shocked to an army hospital. However, Rivers a hospital psychiatrist expresses doubt and after examination says that he is needed to send Sassoon back to fight. Also, the idea of manliness resulting in a great deal of discomfort as the men fights with their healing and the thought of returning to war. It suggests that men in the novel should be ready and willing to return, but for most of them, it is a conflict of feelings.
The evolution of inanimate objects by Harry
The novel “The evolution of inanimate objects” by Harry reflects on inheritance and attempts to probe the changes at the boundary between reason and irrationality in a time when created scientific paradigms were coming down, and Darwin seemed amidst the conflict to display a world of possibilities in other domains. The book is designed partly as a work of historical biographies that is full of insights of Darwin household as well as discussion of the collection of Thomas Darwin’s work. Also, it majors on the evolution of inanimate objects such as forks over time. It involves the changes in the design and shape of these inanimate objects.
The hierarchies of power
Scientific discourse has led to the various forms of knowledge and expertise that define an individual’s or groups authority. The separation that is based on knowledge determines an individual’s ability to speak or act. Basing on knowledge, some people are deemed less experienced than the others hence they are not allowed to make decisions, while some are considered to be younger compared to others hence the inability to act or speak about some issues. Also, because some individual or group are new to a field, they are not authenticated to speak and act on significant matters. Therefore, the hierarchies of power based on the scientific discourse contributes to the differential of knowledge resulting in authority and power.
The novel “The Regeneration” engages with the hierarchies of power established by scientific discourse in various ways. To begin with, the hierarchy of power is engaged in the theme waging war for power. The condition through which the soldiers fought the First World War was horrific. However, the powerful men who perpetuated the war were indifferent to the impacts of these conditions on soldiers. It is apparent the people behind the war had power and authority over the soldiers and used to ensure that they continued fighting despite the existing life-destroying battlefield conditions. In regards to the provided hierarchies of power, the soldiers are considered powerless because most of them are new to the field; hence, they must be servants to the prowess.
The powerful pro-war factions in the government and nation took it as their mandate to return time after time to the horrors of the frontline. Even though the soldiers felt pushed to fight through a sense of duty, they had no authority to reject the directives from the government. For instance, going back to the frontline was a sacrifice for recovering or recovered soldiers. Although they might have been allowed to remain in Britain, most of them, such as Siegfried Sassoon, willingly made the sacrifice to return to the battlefield. In regards to this, the soldiers were unable to decide to stop the war to allow them and their colleague rest because of lack of power. In this case, scientific discourse connects power to knowledge which can be used to explain the facts that soldiers the power over the government officials.
Moreover, in the novel “The Regeneration,” Pat Barker explores the British ideal of manliness was of the stiff upper lip variety. The aspect tolerated no display of emotion because showing emotions was a sign of weakness. For powerful men who started the war, the physical and mental disabilities displayed by the soldiers in the hospital were signs not only of weaknesses but of shirking one’s mandate. The powerful men failed to acknowledge that war trauma could lead to terrible disabilities in soldiers who were real men. It is apparent that the people at the forefront in making decisions for the continuity of the war regardless of the condition affecting their health status.
In the novel “The Regeneration,” some of the characters are troubled by having to betray their principles to continue to fight in the war. For instance, Sassoon is a good example. Though he wrote a declaration denouncing the war, he struggles with the manner in which his anti-war principles fit in his responsibility to the colleagues on the battlefield. In the novel, Sassoon struggled with the dilemma of acting based on his principle, which would help keep him out of the meaningless war. The action points to the scientific discourse that it is the mandate of the people in high authority or power to give directions to be followed by subjects. Therefore, in this case, Sassoon has to obey the orders as well as follow his conscience of assisting the colleagues in the fight.
Moreover, Karlinsky presents the readers with what is perceived to be the result of extensive research to a shoddy record of Thomas increasing deluded life. The author goes ahead to explore small domestic details of Thomas’s childhood to the real Darwin family history. For instance, as an infant, Thomas was quiet, unremarkable, and to some extent, solitary. In regards to this, the novel engages with a scientific discourse that considers knowledge in terms of being younger compared to other people. Thomas was quiet and solitary because young people are not supposed to speak in some aspects. It is perceived that young people do not have adequate knowledge to make the right decisions.
Also, in the novel, Emma proved that he was disappointed on the fact that their son Thomas was unable to run a button club. According to Emma, “Charles and I were not surprised that his efforts to start a Button Club failed to attract a single fellow.” In light of this, Thomas failure to manage the Button club was linked to his young age, which translates to poor knowledge of information. At that age, Thomas was unable to attract even a single fellow because he did not have the authority and the ability to do so. Therefore, the aspect relates the scientific discourse determined that state that power is in the hands of the aged as opposed to the younger people.
In the novel, the biography is a pseudo image hung which is by far a significant experience of the intricate interplay that exists between the readers conscious understanding that Thomas did not exist and a more established sense that he did exist. The false image that appears on some readers mind is based on the assumption that Thomas existence is linked with the ability to exercise power and authority. On the other hand, non-existence scenario is based on the fact that Thomas was unable to make the right decision as a result of his age. Therefore, the pseudo-image that is displayed is based on the hierarchies of power determined through scientific discourse.
The relationship between science and history
History is defined as the study of the progress of the world through time. In most cases, it focuses more on the anthropology side of history, which could be described as the study of human progress in a particular region through time. Also, it involves analyzing past documents and other surviving evidence to prove facts. On the other hand, science is described as the process of getting knowledge through scientific methods. It involves coming with a hypothesis, then investigating and collecting empirical evidence to conclude. Therefore, it is apparent that despite the difference in meaning between science and history, they all involve the study of an aspect.
Since history involves the study of human progress, then scientific questioning is a significant driver of this progress. For instance, in the novel “The Regeneration,” Pat explores features of two famous historical figures; the war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen. It is apparent that to acquire the right information; Pat Barker used science to collect information about the two war poets. In this case, for Pat to give records on the historical events, it was a necessity to use the scientific methods to collect information. Therefore, without the progress of science, historians would not have had the accurate methodologies for collecting and sampling information as well as arrive at a given conclusion.
Also, while new information can assist in solving scientific conflicts, modern scientific techniques and methods can assist solve historical disputes. For example, among the historical disputes that were solved through the help of scientific methods was the impact of the First World War in Britain. In regards to this, Pat wanted to understand the stalemate of the war as well as the conditions that the soldiers were subjected to. Since the information was not available to anybody, it was important to search and gather the data. Therefore, with the help of scientific methods, Pat was able to bring together information from various sources to understand the realities of the impact of the war on soldiers.
Science is a product of history. The information that is provided in history allows scientists to understand, explain as well as develop ideologies on the objects and subjects that are around us. For instance, using the novel “The evolution of inanimate objects” can be used to explain the relationship that exists between science and history. In the novel, Karlinsky presents the evolution of inanimate objects such as folks. The evolution of folks, as displayed in the novel, is attributed to changes in terms of shapes and designs. The information regarding the changes in the object can be used by scientist to understand and explain some concepts. Therefore, science is a product of history that explains their relationship.
Moreover, history about people assists defines the science and science help in shaping an individual’s understanding of aspects. In the novels, some aspects occurred in the past that could assist the people in the current society to explain and understand issues. For instance, the occurrence of the First World War, resulting in a situation where the soldiers wanted to end the war, but the power was not in their hands. In such events, science comes to collect the information to assist people in understanding better.
Scientific discourses led to different hierarchies of power that has been engaged in the two novels. The scientific discourse contributed to the aspect of knowledge based on age and experience. In regards to this, the younger and un-experienced people were not supposed to speak and act to essential issues. For instance, in the novel “The Regeneration,” Pat was able to display the relevance of power. In this case, the soldiers were not allowed to act on their wishes because they did not have the power to act so. Besides, it is also apparent that science is the product of history. Science has helped in the understanding of historical concepts especially the ones that requires solutions to a problem.
Barker, P., (2013). The Regeneration trilogy. Penguin UK.
Karlinsky, H., (2010). The Evolution of Inanimate Objects. Insomniac Press.