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Literature review on social psychology

Introduction

Adolescence is a fascinating transition in the life span of everyone. To begin with, adolescence or puberty is a period between adulthood and childhood where growth happens, secondary sexual features, and psychological changes occur. Since the turn of centuries and perhaps prior to that, adolescence is viewed as a period of tremendous changes. The issues associated with making the transition from childhood to adulthood have been given weight in research leading to changing beliefs about the nature of this developmental period. The paper will provide a literature review on the attitudes about teenagers going through puberty, and their attitudes and moods have changed.

Goddings et al. (2012), adolescence is an important phase in human develop and involves social and psychological changes resulting in the attainment of a well-behaved adult. The period is recognized not as a shift between childhood and adulthood but as an important development period. In the course of this period, new behaviors are set, social relationships culminate, and a new desire arises. The authors determined that there a link between puberty, social, and emotional processing. Therefore, the changes during adolescent in social brain activity are linked to various factors such as age, puberty, biological, and environmental factors. 

In this article, the readers get to understand key issues that happen during adolescence. During this period, various changes influence the development of a stable adult. The things that teenagers go through impact their behavior hence shaping their overall behavior when they get to adulthood. Besides, during adolescence, new behaviors are shaped, affecting their overall relationship with the people around them. It can be said that for good behavior to be displayed in adulthood, it must be practiced during the adolescence stage. Thus, the adolescence stage is important in individual life. 

Lin, & Yi, (2015), links poor sleep to issues such as low level of emotional well-being and a defiant attitude among teenagers. The authors perform a study to determine the influence of adolescent’s unhealthy sleep patterns on issues such as substance use, fighting, and skipping class. Besides, the study determines the relationships unhealthy sleep patterns to their emotional well-being. The results of the article show that unhealthy sleep patterns are related to the issues exhibited by teenagers. Therefore, short sleep and poor sleep patterns result in emotion-based issues exhibited by teenagers.

From the article, various external factors contribute to teenagers’ attitudes, modes, and other forms of behavior. Previously, complete blame on emotional changes like bad attitudes was on pubertal changes. However, a study conducted by Lin & Yi shows that short sleep and poor sleep patterns among teenagers contribute to their emotional imbalance and social issues such as substance abuse. Teenagers who have poor sleep patterns exhibit signs of negative attitudes. 

According to Mendle (2014), puberty is a critical stage of human life that is marked with drastic changes across all domains of life.  The period is linked to various emotional distress. In the article, the author explores the reasons why people should take the purpose of puberty in psychopathology more seriously. Mendle states that girls are normally satisfied with their bodies before puberty. However, after puberty, about half of the girls are likely to consider themselves fat resulting in cases of an eating disorder. From this article, the readers understand that changes that take place during puberty are the primary risk. At puberty, teenagers show exhibit various behaviors. An individual’s behaviors or emotional status is normally shaped at puberty.

According to Ricciardelli & Yager (2015), adolescence is a duration characterized by rapid development and various factors where teenagers focus more on their physical appearance and their bodies. The teenagers are in pressure to meet the looks ideal transmitted through various forms of media. A teenager who has an attractive body image value their body in a practical sense contrary to what he or she looks like. The person usually has high self-esteem, positive attitudes, and can resist pressure from the media. However, teenagers with body issues place unnecessary importance on their appearance and shape. The group might end up developing an eating disorder.

In this article, body image is a concern to most teenagers. It affects their self-esteem as well as their relationships with other people. Most teenagers tend to go with the body image that is shaped by different forms of media. It means that various forms of media are the ones that define the shape that is accepted. Teenagers with a positive body image are usually confident and do not fall to peer pressure or media influence as the ones with body image issues. In regards to this, sometimes, the negative attitudes among teenagers are defined by the perception of their body image.

Sandhya & Bimala (2017), adolescence is an important period of life span attributes by an aspect such as puberty between 10 and 19 years of age. The authors had a view that most adolescents have unfavorable attitudes in regards to pubertal changes suggesting that they are not accepting changes as normal. In addition, they view that adolescent reactions towards pubertal changes based on fear, sadness shows having a misconception and misbelieves in regards to the issues linked to puberty.  According to the authors, there is a gap for attitude awareness on puberty-based changes among teenagers to aid them in getting over stress, frustrations, and depressions. 

From the article, puberty can be a confusing time for teenagers. They observe and experience various body-related changes and are usually unable to make sense of it. The confusion is due to various misconceptions about the changes. It means that the teenagers do not have a full understand of the period as well as the changes that occur in their body. Due to the changes, teenagers react by having an unfavorable attitude. In addition, the article shows that the parents and health agencies have failed to create awareness for the teenagers on their pubertal changes leading to confusion.

Conclusion

Adolescence comes with its fair share of changes that may sometimes worry the teenagers themselves as well as parents. During this period, teenagers tend to search for their own identity and a need for independence. From the literature review, the period is characterized by confusion since teenagers are torn between the desire and need to belong to a given social stratum. As seen in the literature review, puberty is the outcome of hormonal changes besides being responsible for the physical transformation of teenagers leading to mood swings. Therefore, there is a need for parents and relevant agencies to make sure that teenagers understand the changes that occur at puberty.

References

Goddings, A. L., Burnett Heyes, S., Bird, G., Viner, R. M., & Blakemore, S. J. (2012). The relationship between puberty and social emotion processing. Developmental Science, 15(6), 801-811.

Lin, W. H., & Yi, C. C. (2015). Unhealthy sleep practices, conduct problems, and daytime functioning during adolescence. Journal of youth and adolescence, 44(2), 431-446.

Mendle, J. (2014). Why puberty matter for psychopathology. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 218-222.

Ricciardelli, L. A., & Yager, Z. (2015). Adolescence and body image: from development to preventing dissatisfaction. Routledge.

Sandhya, P., & Bimala, P. (2017). Awareness and Attitude on Pubertal Changes among Community Adolescents. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 10(3).

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