a) The main symptoms in major depression are serious and constant low mood, extreme sadness, or rather lack of morale. At times, the mood can come as irritability, and the person may lack interest in doing tasks that are normally enjoyable (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015). There are other signs and symptoms that normally come alongside low mood and varies among different people. Individuals with major depression also exhibit elements of anxiety. These people are disturbed on their physical well-being. Besides, they might have episodes of disagreements in their relationships and reduced productivity at work. Other symptoms are an increase in sleep, exhaustion, suicidal thoughts, and weight loss or gain.
b) It can be challenging to differentiate depression from episodes of “feeling the blues.” However, people usually feel the blues due to challenging situations like loss of a partner, job stress, family issues, or illness. In most cases, blues disappear fast and do not stop people from finding happiness in life (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015). On the contrary, depression is a mental illness that influences one mood, the way an individual himself or herself, and relate to things around them. Depression can last for a long time, and it much more than sadness or low mood. Individuals who experience depression may feel worthless or hopeless.
c) There are different groups of anxiety disorders. These are;
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder; is a disorder shown by recurring unwanted behavior.
- Panic disorder; it is a disorder displayed through un-anticipated and a series of extreme fear combined with physical signs like chest, irregular heartbeat, and abdominal problems
- Social phobia; is a disorder attributed to extreme anxiety and excess self-consciousness in daily social events (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015). It is limited to a single situation like the fear of speaking in public.
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); is a disorder that comes after experiencing a traumatizing situation. Traumatic events can result in issues such as violent insults and threats, among others.
- Phobias phobia; is the most prevalent kind of anxiety disorder attributed to irrational, extreme, unreasonable, and constant fears of some objects or events (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2015). Most known phobias involve animals, especially snakes, insects, sights of blood, and dogs, among others.
- Attention disorder; is used to describe individuals who are hyperactive, impulsive, or may lack inattentive behaviors. It can be caused by genetic or biological disorders. Individuals having this disorder lacks the power of concentration in events.
- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); is a disorder attributed to chronic anxiety, extreme and unnecessary worries, and tension even when there is nothing serious to provoke it.
d) Life at college or university usually generates excitement and anxiety for various reasons, including the move, academic responsibilities, and meeting new people. First, it takes me some time to adapt to the environment. It can be challenging for me to make the transition shorter because of issues such as a feeling of homesick. This feeling might lead to depression, anxiety, as well as minor physical ailments. Second, I do enjoy the company of friends that I have already created. Going to college or university might separate me from my family and friends for a long period hence making the transition challenging. Third, college events such as exams might increase my tension hence affecting my mood.
- Abuse; is an act of misusing something or someone. In other words, it can mean going against the originally intended purpose. A person can abuse another person by mistreating him or her (Kluger, 2018). However, there are other situations where a person abuses substances such as drugs.
- Addiction; it is a psychological and physical inability to stop using a substance or an activity even when it leads to psychological and physical harm (Kluger, 2018). When an individual experiences addiction, they are unable to control how they use a substance or partake in a task, and they rely on them to cope with daily life.
- Dependence; is a state of being psychologically or physically reliant on someone or something for help and support (Kluger, 2018). If an individual is dependent on something or someone, they are unable to stand or support themselves without the person or something.
- Intoxication; is a condition that comes after the administration of a psychoactive substance and leads to disturbance in the level of consciousness, cognition, behavior, or psychophysiological functions and responses (Kluger, 2018).
- Withdrawal; is the act of taking something back or removing yourself from a situation or event (Kluger, 2018). In other words, it can mean pulling back from using something like a substance, especially in cases of addiction.
- Harm reduction; is an approach that is directed towards reducing the negative consequences that are linked with something or someone (Kluger, 2018). The main aim of harm reduction is lowering the consequences of an action.
- Some behaviors that can be classified as behavioral or process addiction are;
- The person has a desire to gamble with an increasing amount of money to achieve the desired result (Kluger, 2018). In such a case, the person is controlled by the need to achieve the anticipated goal and does not care about the consequences that might arise because of the action
- The person is restless or irritable when trying to cut down or stop gambling (Kluger, 2018). The person is unable to control or tame the urge for activities such as gambling
- The person has lost important relationships, jobs, or career opportunities in life because of gambling. In this case, the person seems to be comforted by the act of gambling more than other essential activities in life.
- There are negative health effects of consuming high doses of Caffeine. It is stated that consuming more than 500g of caffeine every day may result in health effects such as;
- Caffeine can cause insomnia which is a disorder where an individual has trouble in sleeping
- Caffeine can lead to nervousness since it stimulates an individual’s fight or flight response causing anxiety
- Caffeine can lead to cases of the stomach upset because it triggers inflammation of the stomach lining, heartburn or abdominal pain
- Caffeine can cause irritability because it triggers the release of adrenaline which results in anxiety
- A fast heartbeat; caffeine can result in irregular heart rhythm
- Muscle tremors; this is usually caused by cases of anxiety
- Health Canada sets safe levels of caffeine consumption. A healthy adult should not consume more than 400 mg of caffeine daily.
- Yes, it should be mandatory for companies to include the amount of caffeine in each food or drink. Including the amount of caffeine in the drinks and food allows the customers to know the amount of caffeine they are taking. Thus, they can keep track of their consumption rate to remain within the provided limit.
- The positive attributes of marijuana use are;
- Medical marijuana is an effective pain reliever. It can be used to treat chronic pain, which could otherwise result in paralysis (Kluger, 2018).
- Marijuana can be used to help people with alcohol or opioid dependencies to fight addition (Kluger, 2018).
- Marijuana can be used to treat symptoms of mental illness
- Marijuana is efficient against nausea and vomiting which are side effects of chemotherapy
- The negative attributes of marijuana use are;
- Daily use of marijuana can increase signs of bipolar disorder among individuals who already have a mental health issue (Kluger, 2018).
- Constant marijuana smoking is connected to high risk of chronic cough
- The use of marijuana can result in mood changes
- The use of marijuana can result in anxiety and panic
- Short-term risk of cannabis use include;
- Short-term memory issues
- Loss of sense of oneself
- Increased heart-rate
- Long-term risks of cannabis use include;
- Decline in intelligence
- Reduces life satisfaction
- Relationship issues because of intimate partner violence (Kluger, 2018).
- Financial problems because of purchasing cannabis
- The following are three theories developed in regards to the mixing of alcohol with energy drink
- Researchers have theorized that the effects of stimulants in an energy drink may work to reduce the depressant effects of alcohol hence covering the physiological and psychological sedative experiences (Roemer & Stockwell, 2017).
- Some researchers have theorized that AmED uses the result in subjective effects like a decrease in the subject’s realization of intoxication without lowering the alcohol level or linked psychomotor deficiency.
- Researchers also theorized that people who tend to consume more alcohol have a higher probability to engage in risky drinking behavior and have a higher chance to encounter harm linked to risky drinking behaviors (Roemer & Stockwell, 2017).
Canadian Mental Health Association (2015). What is the difference between sadness and depression? Retrieved from; https://www.heretohelp.bc.ca
Kluger, J. (2018). Some words of caution. Special time edition. Marijuana the medical movement. 62-65.
Roemer, A., & Stockwell, T. (2017). Alcohol mixed with energy drinks and risk of injury: A systematic review. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 78(2), 175-183.